Friday, March 29, 2019
The State Of Male Privilege In Contemporary Society Sociology Essay
The State Of Male Privilege In coetaneous Society Sociology EssayThe state of priapic privilege within ships company is greatly debated. Both past and present day academics, admit considered the boundary of its presence and effects within society in relation to spacial and geographical di valet de chambrepowersions. Over cartridge clip, a vast selection of publications claiming that staminate privilege heavily affects wo diddleforces power and opportunity for equality mingled with the sexes has accumulated. This literature is a reaction to issues such as wo workforce consistently taking degrade remunerations in the consummationforce and cosmos repressed by the family unit, cultures, religion, authorities and society as a whole. This has resulted in limitations for wo men due to stereotypical sexual activity roles reinforced in both work and home spaces. However, the summationd authorisation of women must be n iodind by dint of the last century, for example, wh en women won the office to vote. The last decade witnessed Farrells (1993) works on The Myth of Male big business soldiery which has cast a rather variant light on the aloneeged privileges of man. Leaving one to question whether, in fact, it is to women that freedom and privilege belongs G octogenarianin and Katz (2006) discourse this phenomenon in The reversal of the college g final st developer possible action. Are men peradventure, as Farrell (1993) send words, perhaps the confederated sex?For the purposes of this essay, man resembling privilege will be de exquisited as the notion that the virile population of society is granted rights and statuses based stringently on the grounds of their gender, gum olibanum women ar denied equal liberties. Patriarchy, as a conceit strongly associated with male privilege is defined as a system of social structures and practices, through which men dominate, oppress and exploit women, concord to The Dictionary of Human Geograp hy (Gregory et al. 2009).Cosslett et al (1996) highlight the theme of patriarchy is evident within theological structures. They also refer to a rime from the book of Timothy in the New Testament which cl early elicits that women are subordinate to men.Let a women learn in silence with totally submissiveness. I permit no womanhood to teach or to impart authority oer men she is to keep silent. For Adam was formed first, thence Eve and Adam was not deceived, bit the woman was deceived and became a transgressor. neverthe slight woman will be saved through bearing children, if she continues in faith and love and holiness, with modesty.(1 Timothy 2.11-15)1 Timothy 2.11-15 suggests that women are the fuck off of sin and deception. Eve, as the representation of the female person form was deliberately uncontrollable when provided with the opportunity to exercise her own authority. Christianity interprets this foundational allegory in order to cleft field an explanation for the sexu al hierarchy existing within society.According to Therborn (2004), the humankind of patriarchy reposeed part of society throughout the 1900s. The law of the father remained a substantial part of understanding society during the 1900s. The role of the father was to man season everyplace the children continuing into adult life, until they were married. It was world(a)ly perceived that men were super-ordinate to their wives, so men had generational authority. So some(prenominal) so, that despite a general expectation that men should keep a mistress in Latin Europe and America, dissociate was fantastically difficult and a uniquely male privilege in China and Muslim countries (Therborn, 2004). Female freedom was incredibly restricted, entirely controlled by their male authority, whether it be by their father or husband. Movement in public spaces for women was physically restrained almost everywhere, however, restrictions change to a great extent. In North-America and North-weste rn Europe, sexually ambiguous spaces including the streets subsequently dark, restaurants, theatres and early(a) places of entertainment were usually off-limits to women unless being escorted (Therborn, 2004). However, Therborn (2004) noted that more uttermost(prenominal) measures were taken to restrain womens movement elsewhere, for example, in an area of land between the Gangetic plains of the redundant Mughal Empire to the Atlantic coast of Morocco. Women of the upper conservative classes seldom left their female quarters, let alone their home it was expected that they should only when set foot after- indoctrinate(prenominal) their home for events such as their marriage, their fathers closing and at their own burial. On the a few(prenominal) occasions when they did leave their home, they were wrapped up and veiled.Therborn (2004) discusses not only the restrictions that were placed on womens movement through space but physical restraints places on their body by men. Wome n in China endured great suffering forced to conform to the male concept of beauty their feet were broken and bound up as a recommendation to their male authority.Jackson (1990) suggests that some homosexual men may stick suffered oppression under patriarchy (such as compulsory heterosexualism), as comfortably as the inherent exploitation of women. Brittan (1989, p.4) considers that masculinity or patriarchy assumes that heterosexuality is normal, it accepts without question the sexual division of labour, and sanctions the political and dominant role of men in the public and private spheres. Essentially certain forms of masculinity are privileged, subordinating other forms. Thus, homosexuality is treated as secondary to heterosexuality, honorable as women are to men.The continued oppression and abuse of women through period and place inspired the sentiments of Mary Wollstonecraft two centuries ago, who wrote, I only wish women to have powerover themselves, as highlighted by Finch (1996). As the second jounce of feminism began to gain strength in Britain in the 1960s, views of the family changed, as feminists argued the family was a fundamental author of womens oppression (Finch, 1996). Finch (1996) questions whether or not the family represents restriction of opportunities, thus positioning women as subordinates to men within the family unit. He suggests that the gender dealings characteristic of the dominant family form are key to understanding a womans place within society. However, Finch (1996) argues that in recent years the family form has altered. Therborn (2004) suggests that the early twentieth century saw de-patriarchalization occurring at an incredible rate. No other social institution through time has been forced to retreat and loosen up its hold as much. The retreat of patriarchy from society has been aided by legal enforcement for example, when women (all over the age of 21) won the right to vote in 1928 as well as the UN declaration o f human rights 1948, which statedwork force and Women of full age, without any limitations due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to espouse and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage, and its prodigalityMarriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spousesSo the family form has changed and continues to change as the first draw in of feminism spurred on de-patriarchalization in the early twentieth century weded by the second wave come the 1960s, womens rights within marriage and the family were increasing.A womans ability to succeed in the eyes of Mary Wollstonecraft has to go against the grain of social life (Finch, 1996, p.20), in combination with favourable circumstances allowing a woman to gain fiscal independence. However, Finch (1996) recognises that this remains a difficult task even at the end of the twentieth century.Callen and Wren (1994) report a sharp rise on the hourly nets that Irish women received relative to their male counterparts during the 1970s, after the introduction of the equal pay legislation and anti-discrimination legislation. Over the past few decades the male-female wage gap has seemingly shrunk by near half. This narrowing was in particular dramatic in the 1980s but since has levelled out and remained more horse barn (Doms and Lewis, 2007). However, it remains that women only earn approximately 70% of the amount their male colleagues earn for the same jobs. This is evidence that men seem to have privileges which women lack. Simon and Landis (1989) suggest that the wage gap between men and women backsidenot narrow to equality until both genders have equal duty. Conversely, most of the figures quoted for the male-female wage gap are for doing workers in the manufacturing industry, but this group of workers amounts to nevertheless 1 in 3 of all employees and less than 1 in 5 of all female employees (Callen and Wren, 1994). Thus , it is debateable as to whether this sub-group of the economy brook provide an accurate representation of the male-female wage gap. It is also important to note that women are more highly voiceless in the younger age groups within the manpower 70% women 52% men were aged 35 or below. This is usually attributed to many an(prenominal) women, oddly married women, tending to leave the labour market during the years of child-bearing and child-rearing (Callen and Wren, 1994). This can affect the wage gap because generally wage gaps for groups of a quasi(prenominal) age, or possessing similar labour market experience are smaller. The wage gap is often around on the button 7% for those under the age of 35.Despite increasing numbers of women returning to work after having children, many liquid get that child-care and other family responsibilities are the main reason that they did not seek out paid work. The presence of a pre-school child (age 0-4) makes it much less seeming that a woman will return to work (Callen and Wren, 1994). This effect is not at all mirrored in the end of men. McDowell (1997) suggests that this is due to the binaries that exist in society the workplace is a male reign space while the home is a female dominated space. However, Hochschild (2003) notes a staggering increase in mothers returning to work in America with children aged 3 and under, from 34% in 1975, to 61% in 2000. 90% of women that do return to the workforce have found that they still are expected to be responsible for finding and organising childcare. Whilst this increase in the number of mothers that are working outside the home may suggest that women are gaining power over themselves, it may also be attributed to a change from Fordist notions of a family wage. Rather, womens work has absorbed the deindustrialisation of America and the decline in mens wages (Hochschild, 2003). In fact, Pratt (2002) predicts that by 2025 women in the UK will possess 60% of the nations wealthiness, and by 2020 just 47% of the UKs millionaires will be men.Garai and Scheinfield (1968) suggest that the mass of studies report that men advance further in the workforce, whilst women are left behind with the expectation to get married and have children because boys have a clearer concept of their future occupational roles, are more realistic in their vocational planning, and less frequently engaged in unrealistic fantasies and pipedreams about future happiness than girls. Is the privilege and success of men within the workforce due to a lack of aspiration and focus on employment from women? Or is it as Spencer and Podmore (1987) have suggested, that womens line of achievements are unplanned due to an suspensive nature as well as suffering from breaks for child-rearing?This began to change as in the 1960s and 1970s, young womens expectations for their futures were changing, and no longer did they expect to follow in their mothers footsteps. By 1980, levels of male and female graduates had reached parity, but womens greater increase rate did not slow in 2003, there were 1.35 for every one male 4-year college graduates, and 1.30 for every one male undergraduate (Goldin and Katz, 2006). Thus the twenty-first century witnessed a reversal in the college gender gap. This effect is not purely a phenomenon of the USA it is now occurring in nearly all OECD countries. In the three surveys conducted to assess the college gender gap, Goldin and Katz (2006) reported that girls achieved consistently higher(prenominal) grades than boys did throughout high school. In the Wisconsin information of high school seniors graduating in 1957, the high school rank of the median girls was 21 percentile points preceding(prenominal) the median boy. This difference whilst less extreme still remained with a 16 percentile point difference in 1992 graduated in the NELS data (Goldin and Katz, 2006). Therefore, demonstrating that girls have an academic privilege over boys.Evide nce that the college gender gap and the male-female wage gap is narrowing perhaps lead to Farrell (1993) to question whether male power is a myth, further exploring the idea that men are not the privileged gender. Farrell (1993) considers the many ways in which women are argued to be subordinate to their male counterparts feeling of powerless through fears of pregnancy, ageing, rape, date rape, and being physically overpowered, less exposure to team sports and its blend of competitiveness and cooperation that is so laboursaving to career preparation, greater parental pressure to marry and interrupt career for children without regard for her wishes, to name but a few. The conclusion to these experiences of women across the land is that women have the problem, men are the problem (Farrell, 1993, p.27-28). However, Farrell (1993) then puts a different spin on the concept of gender privilege, claiming that men have a different experience.When a man tries to keep up with payments by wo rking overtime and is told he is insensitive, or tries to handle the stress by potable and is told he is a drunkard, he does not feel powerful, but powerless. When he fears a cry for help will be met with stop whining he skips past attempting felo-de-se as a cry for help and just commits suicide. Thus menincreasingly become the suicide sex. (Farrell, 1993, p27-28)Farrell (1993) suggests that when we look at life foreboding, we acknowledge that blacks dying six years sooner than whites reflects the impotence of blacks in American society. Yet a man dying on mediocre seven years sooner than a woman is rarely considered a reflection of powerlessness. If the seven year gap is biological, why was it just a one year gap in 1920? If life expectancy is one of the best indictors of power, then suicide is one of the best indicators of powerlessness, strength is the ability to control ones life. Death tends to reduce control (Farrell, 1993, p27-28). Until boys and girls reach the age of 9 rates of suicide are equal, but from the age of 10, as a boy grows older he is far more likely to commit suicide than a girl of the same age. Between the ages of 20-24, a male is 6 times more inclined to commit suicide than a female. By the age of 85, the suicide rate for men has change magnitude to 1350% higher than for women of the same age. This suggests perhaps that men have a less privileged life, for feeling more stressed with work may cause an inclination toward suicide.It is easy to ignore the influence and power that a woman possesses, which a mother can have over her children including both sons and daughters. scarce it is the mother who is able to make their childs everyday life heaven or hell through discipline, whether that be making their bedtime earlier, taking away desserts, or grounding the child if they do not obey (Farrell, 1993). Few men are able to say they hold this kind of influence or power. Despite the old saying that man is master of the house, many men feel they were visitors in their wives castle. A wife may feel that a mans home is his castle, but from a husbands perspective, his wifes home is his mortgage.In the past, the prohibition against divorce gave a woman auspices in her workplace (the home), knowing they would be supported. However, no man could say he had a similar security in his workplace his source of income could come off him, whilst her source of income could not fire her. Even today, now that divorce is a legal option, if a man quits his job, he does not receive unemployment pay. Yet, if she initiates divorce, she is able to take a half share of their possessions. Perhaps then, women possess greater privileges than men?It has been a long held assumption that women spend a greater amount of time on housework and childcare than men spend working, concluding that women work two jobs, men work one (Farrell, 1993, p.37). However, a information by the University of Michigan (1991) found the average man worked 61 ho urs per week, while the average woman works 56 hours a week. A nationwide study in 1975 found similarly that husbands did 53% of the total work, including childcare, housework, work outside the home, commuting and gardening, while wives did only 47%.A mans freedom or lack of it has been compared to that of a slave a slave is expected to check up their seat for a woman, or to help her put on her coat like a slave would for their master (Farrell, 1993). Men as opposed to women are expected to do societys most hazardous jobs, like ones slave would have been given (Farrell, 1993).The difference simply being societys rules and expectations of men, such as that of politeness, whilst slaves act out of subservience.A man may feel through expectation that in a sense he is being discriminated against, but there is evidence that women also experience this. Black illustration Shirley Chisholms statement that she faced far more discrimination as a woman than as a black was widely quoted (Farre ll, 1993).Although, perhaps the great discrimination that American men experience of all, purely because of their gender, is the expectation that men and only men should be conscribed into combat in the case of war. Farrell (1993) explores the idea of the pro-choice woman and the no-choice man, arguing that registering all our 18-year old sons for the gulp in the event of war is as sexist as registering all our 18-year old daughters for child-rearing in the event that the country requires more children. Is it fair that an 18-year boy can be barred from all federal employment from the US point Office to the FBI, as well as facing a $250,000 fine and five years in prison if he refuses to register for the delineate? Farrell (1993) suggests that in essence he is typeface to being killed purely for not killing for whilst in prison he will be subject to homosexual rape and thus AIDS because of his reputation for not wanting(p) to fight. Is this fair, while a female who does not reg ister is able to calculate a state school or a private school with federal aid, get married, have children, or be single and work. In other words, a woman who does not sign up for the draft is free to live life as she pleases, while a man has an obligation to die (Farrell, 1993, p.130).To conclude, the understanding of male privilege has changed greatly over the last century. There are a great many examples over time and place which suggest that women have suffered under the dominance of man, but, it is by no means a universally accepted concept. Farrell (1993) has persistently argued that men find they are subordinates to women and children. Many of the issues around gender discrimination in the workplace in terms of employment and wages, have found improvements in favour of women, to the extent that Pratt (2002) suggests that in the UK women will possess more wealth than men by 2025. However, male privilege remains prominent in other aspects of society, only time will tell whethe r this will remain or will gradually fade. It is difficult to say how near or far society is from gender equality due to the vast disputes as to the state of male privilege that exists today.