Tuesday, April 2, 2019

Computer Forensics And Crime Investigations Information Technology Essay

Com personateer Forensics And Crime Investigations Information Technology tellWith the progression of sentence and advancement in technology, our digitized nation has and testament fix to a greater extent dependent on tuition growthing arrangements as we function them in our free-and-easy lives whether it be at school, bat, or for individualised subroutine. By evaluating agone styluss it is impregnable to calculate a rise in execrations using reckoners. at once criminals put a strain on discipline processing system forensic tasters, beca usance there ar few crimes that be committed without the involvement of a figurer or each opposite computing device of some sort. Today with computing device hardware and software becoming more sophisticated and portable on with wireless technology this broadens the rendering of calculating machines, but for this research a individualized reckoner is the extent of the type.With technology constantly evolving and wit h the definition updating what is to be considered say, this is why proper training and education is required. This is why it is imperative to examine crimes where information processing systems play a role in a crime and it is crucial to develop any potential show up located on the digital media. For a person charged with an offense, their charge in the case sens be weakened if the investigation fails to find any such recount. This is why it is imperative to create, build, and improve a national standardization and certification for the data processor forensics field.The Statement of the ProblemThe definition of estimator forensics may vary slenderly depending on the authors on the subject. One of comm only if known definition refers computing device forensics as the acquisition, examination, and insurance coverage of information found on information processing systems and intercommunicates that pertain to a criminal or civil investigation (Kessler, 2005). Computer f orensics is becoming more and more important due to growth of crime-rates involving the hold of information processing systems and the Internet. Although such a trend is difficult to control completely, computing device forensics technologies and applications provide necessary tools to law enforcement and other agencies to assist in crime investigations.Computer forensics is goodly used in solving cybercrimes however, its use reaches far beyond just that. As numerous criminals engage in more sinister crimes-such as murder, kidnapping, sexual assault, and terrorism- overly husband incriminating information on their computers, re upholding damning evidence from their computers lots provides law enforcement crucial discoveries during investigations. There are numerous real-life crimes that were solved by use of computer forensics, and the signifi force outce of computer forensics continues to increase as technologies develop. However, computer evidence does not always provide s olid traces of information necessary to prosecute a criminal due to computers volatile and virtual reputation of information storage. Proper processing of computer evidence is essential to establishing believability of evidence collected from computers and other peripherals, and it is computer forensics experts responsibility to en certain(a) that the evidence is valid, uncorrupted, and unquestionable.Why research this topicDuring a computer investigation, the computer system that is suspected to agree to attainable evidence must be cogencyily handled by a professional. They investigator must create a retroflex or true experience (bit stream) of the original media, which would be inspected later in the process for crucial evidence. When inspecting the copy the investigator will look for circumstantial expressions or key words to establish any vital digital evidence that exists or has been deleted. The types of incriminating digital evidence could be numerous such as racia l discrimination, sexual discrimination, stock fraud, blackmail, and numerous others. To dish up promote fast turnaround time computer forensic professionals pop down the aid of mercenary software packages worry X-Ways Forensics, Encase, and several other commercial and open source utilities. Unfortunately, the consequences of not stick toing precisely these standards can three to the lost of evidence itself, and therefore it is important to create, build, and improve the methods of do well-organized searches in browse to trace evidence.The need for a current teach in the computer forensics field is important for the hereafter of not only the computer forensics field, and law enforcement, but for the legal system and everyone else who uses a computer. Today in our digital nation, we are becoming more dependable on technology and its many branches of devices. This has lead to shuffling investigators ask themselves what type of computer crime has happened, what is conside red evidence, and how to handle it.MethodologyAs time and technology progresses computer forensics is a very important factor on the war in computer crimes in our nation. Most reading suggest in order for computer forensics to properly be considered by the courts as a scientific discipline there has to be proper education, training, and testing for adequate certification. The time frames from the readings were 2000-2010, but a majority of them were from 2004 2006. There has been improvement in novel years to develop a national unified approach in undergraduate and graduate programs.HypothesisComputer forensics is a relatively in the altogether field and discipline in the private sector compared to other forensic sciences. Computer forensics is the science of acquiring, preservation, identification, extraction/retrieving, and documentation of computer evidence that has been bear upon by electronic means and stored on a computer without alter any of the entropy in the process. W ith our rapidly evolving improving technology this has lead the definition of computer forensics to be interchangeable with digital forensics, which expands the definition to take on PDAs, cell phones, and other portable devices. When conducting a forensic investigation with computer evidence the investigator must transact particular procedures to guarantee sure-fire evidence collection. The evidence collected can be useful in civil disputes, criminal cases, computer system break in, recover data, and clement resources/employment proceedings. As our homes, formulateplaces, and organizations become more incorporated with the aid of information technology and the Internet we also have to take into consideration the gentleman element as a factor. This is why current research is indispensable to tailor programs for computer forensics to keep up with advanced criminals.backgroundIn order to prepare for the future tense we need to look in the past and try to figure out how we got here and how to fix some of the problems. scientific progress is like an axe in the hands of a ghoulish criminal. (Albert Einstein) As technology changes and the words that explain it there is the unchanged motives and stimulated needs that drives the criminal behavior. With this in mind we need to recognize the intentions of the inventors for the computer and the Internet. Before the invention of personal computers and the Internet these technological tools were used exclusively for scientific leaders and the soldiery which were located in either multitude bases or major university campuses. Half a degree centigrade ago, the technology we use today might have seemed like science fiction. The first general-purpose electronic computer was the ENIAC, Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer. The intentions of the creators were to design a machine for mathematical power for computing. The United States Department of Defense began financial backing of ARPA (the Advanced Re search Projects Agency) and in 1969 the Internets first long distance electronic communication was made. The intentions of the creators were to create an instrument to guarantee an infrastructure between military installations.The goal of computer forensics is to recover and preserve digital evidence and to understand as much information regarding to the data as possible. The need for a computer forensics examiner is after the fact electronic information has been altered, deleted, or stolen in a computer crime. As with any other types of crimes it is a fact that the criminal leaves behind traces of their occupation and these traces are the smoking munition that leads to prosecution in the court system. A computer forensics specializer is more than a computer expert they must know how to effectively perform complex evidence recover procedures. These procedures include data duplication/preservation, data seizure, data recover, document searches, expert witness dos, media conversio n, computer evidence service options, and miscellaneous operate.A computer forensic examiner must follow federal guidelines for data seizure. One course of action allows a proxy to examine and duplicate designated documents or data compilations that may include evidence, and it is The federal official Rules of Civil Procedure. When data is duplicated or preserved the main concern is that data must not be altered in any way. entropy recover is performed using dedicated tools for computer forensics to safely recover and go evidence. A document search is the ability to understand storage technology and perform a search with speed and efficiency. Media conversion is the ability to find and cross-examine data from the source or unreadable device, extract data and permute it into readable formats. Part of being a computer forensic specializer is to at times be an expert witness, and explain complex technical processes in an easy to understand manner. Some level of services that sho uld be offered is on-site, standard, emergency, priority, and weekend services. Other miscellaneous services include analysis of computers and data, on-site seizure in criminal investigations. Also an advantage is the ability to work on both PC and Mac O/S and a fast turnaround of time.Overview of Computer CrimeToday criminals usually are one step ahead of law enforcement agencies and they have the knowledge to use computers to their gain, and they have the ability to cover their tracks. Since technology is constantly changing definitions are quickly becoming outdated as new-fashioned definitions expand new offenses to computer crimes. However, computer crime can be generally categorize into four categories and they are criminal activity that involves using a computer as an instrument to commit a crime, criminal activity that has a computer as a target, such as hacking into, criminal activity when the computer was unintentionally part of the crime, and crimes frequently associated with the use of computers. With this new definition computer crimes in 2009 have increased 22% from 2008.The computer as an instrument of a crimeWhen a criminal uses a computer as an instrument in a crime we can forecast of it as when a burglar uses a crowbar or toss picks as in instrument to enter a house. For this research, when a computer is used as an instrument of a crime there accusatory is to obtain data to commit fraud, stealth of service, harassment and other vile activities by a network by copying data preferably than deleting. Theft is when a criminal unlawfully takes and carries away property or service without the permission of the owner. The property and service can range from personal/private information, financial information, security information, human resources information, internet access and slew secrets. With the stolen property or services the criminal can reproduce off identification, copyright material, and distribute child pornography among other t ypes of crimes. Another use of a computer is by writing letters or e-mails to make threats, harassments, or stalk individuals.Computer as a targetWhen a criminal targets a computer as part of the crime they put in an attack on computers or networks difficult to deny service by denying the rightful user access to their own computer system or data. Another attack could be to damage or alter the computer system or data by browsing finished blue-chip information stored or saved on the computer. When a computer is vandalized this also is considered as a computer as a target, because valuable information stored in the computer is denied to the rightful owner.The computer as incidental to a crimeIn a crime scene a computer can be seen as a subsidiary tool to a crime when criminals use the computer to simplify their transactions. These crimes could happen without technology, but the computer assists the criminal in their transactions which might include child pornography, capital laund ering, leads to other crimes and other criminal information. This computer crime evidence could have names of victims, associates, clients, and perpetrators personal information.Crimes associated with the prevalence of computersTechnology advancements have created new targets of stuffy crimes and the targets are on the industry. This includes academic property, software piracy/counterfeiting, copyright aggression of computer programs, black market computer equipment, counterfeit equipment, identity theft, and programs, and theft of technological equipment. The most common use of this crime is piracy or the violation of copyright infringement of commercial softwareCOMPUTER FORENSICS runToday on television there are shows that portray crime scene investigation while using computer forensics, and they give the audience a little glimpse into the world of computer forensics. When in globe computer forensics is meticulous work, but the shows leave out all the inside information of the process. Computer forensic today based on a conjecture of trace evidence, and this theory is build upon the development of forensic science. One of the motivate factors in the development of forensic science was by 20th century forensic scientist Edmond Locard, and his theory was called the The Locard Exchange Principle.The Locard exchange principle states there will always be an exchange when two items come into contact, and that the contact(s) will get something into the scene of the crime and leave behind something in the scene, therefore leave a trace of evidence. Although trace evidence might be weakened yet important information found in a computer, it whole is not enough to make a case. Traces evidence can might be the smoking gun that leads to a successfully win in a court case. No matter how well the criminal tries to cover up their tracks, in todays society with computers hooked up to a network or wirelessly leaves traces of stored data on a computer to be found. Th is is where the skills and services of a computer forensics specialist will come in handy.This branch is where computer forensic specialist and self proclaim computer experts get divided into separate groups. The field of computer forensics is vital to law enforcement agencies, because the procedures to nurse and present evidence in court are followed by the requirements of the judicial system. There are plenty of computer experts who know how to search through files, point, click, copy, and make directory listings, but a computer forensics specialist does more than this. A computer forensics specialist must be familiar with and understand in detail how files systems are created, accessed, deleted, and changed. With training and experience a computer forensics specialist understands the methods and techniques for securing and acquiring evidence without altering it in a legal manner. achievementJust as any other type of evidence, digital evidence also comes across some difficulty. So why go through the trouble of collecting it? It is because if we dont try to figure out who committed the crime, why they did it and how, then we will never be able to stop them or anyone else from committing a crime again. This is why trying to recover all possible deleted files is crucial. Areas to look evidence can be in the hard drive, page files, temporary or swap files, and unallocated space. When collecting evidence in this step no changes or modifications to the evidence must be made or else the evidence will be considered inadmissible.PreservationWhen a proper undertake is issued the ability to protect data from a recovered system must be protected and unaltered in any way. The computer forensic specialist should pay close attention to this step in trying to avoid the notorious Murphys Law. To avoid this mishap at this point in time an exact duplicate copy should be made in order to preserve the best evidence, the original evidence. One of the most effective ways to b ack up is the use of bit stream image back-ups. This method copies and preserves all data enclosed partition, logical drive, and corporeal drive in the hard drive. Another idea to think to the highest degree when preserving digital evidence is where to save it, and that depends on the investigator and the organization they work for.AnalysisThe person conducting and analyzing the evidence in the investigation but be able to guarantee that the closure of an conclusion came from the evidence, and were not in any way a part of contamination or error. One heavens that the computer forensic specialist can control is making sure hardware and software are working properly. They can also investigate to make sure their equipment is up to date with updates, verify licenses, and know how to use the equipment. A vital process to conduct analysis is creating a chop value. The hash value is created with software to produce a unique value, like a digital fingerprint, produce a mathematical va lue.DocumentationThis process is crucial in the field, because if one mistake is made in reporting of evidence, then any other evidence could be questioned. Once the evidence has been indentify everything encountered with the use of a digital camera, video camera, or pen and newspaper or a combination of two. Once this is done, then all evidence must be labeled and any devices attached to the computer along with ports and wires connected the two. In case a computer forensics investigator is testifying in a court case, then the documentation process will second the investigator jog their memory.In conclusion, following these steps is crucial in computer forensics because it builds stronger methods within time. Experience and training of software can result in better search techniques to build a better and fast-paced turnaround time. There is a need for a current pick up to identify future trends and concerns in judicial system on the subject of digital evidence and computer foren sics. With the data gathered on future trends schools and computer forensic field can educate and train future forensic investigators with current and proper techniques to keep up with criminals.References

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