Friday, May 31, 2019

causes of the great depression Essay -- essays research papers

The Great Depression was a decade of poverty for many a(prenominal) linked States citizens. Starting in 1929, The Great Depression was a rough time not only for the U.S. but for many other countries. There are many causes for the Depression but the main cause was the combination of the greatly unequal dissemination of wealth throughout the 1920s and the extensive stock market speculation(Gusmorino, 1). Other causes were the ricketiness of the stock market, short signed economic policies, overdependence on mass production, consumer spending, advertising, welfare capitalism, and high tariff. The effect on the country of the imbalance in the economy threw the U.S. into an term of negativity. How did the United States go from the roaring twenties to The Great Depression? It was all based on deflation and the crash of the economy. A good example of uneven distribution of wealth was Henry Fords yearly income of $14 billion the same year that the average income was $750. Another contr ibutor to the uneven distribution was the government. Calvin Coolidge favour businesses therefore favoring the wealthy who invested in these businesses. For an economy to function properly, total demand must equal total supply. What happened in the 1920s was an oversupply of goods. This resulted in the middle-class needing to a greater extent but not being able to afford more while the upper-class didnt want to buy more goods. Three quarters of the U.S. cosmos spent almost all of their yearly incomes to purchase consum...

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Analysis Of Scared To Death Of Dying, Article By Herbert Hendin :: essays research papers

Analysis of "S managed to Death of Dying", Article by Herbert HendinThe desktop for this work is that the existing conflict overlegalizing assisted suicides and euthanasia could bring our values down andsociety apart. The problem is not legalizing or opposing to it, the existingproblem is to find a way to care for the terminally ill. We have theresponsibility to help the terminally ill die in a correctly way not killing them.If we dont have a policy or rule against this we are permitting indemnifys, likeJack Kevorkian, to become famous for killing people. The conduct for this work isthat assisted suicides and euthanasia should be illegal.     The Oregon Law would allow people to die quicker and without dignity.We can see that this is true in the narrative of the 30 year-old man that hasleukemia. He had a 25 percent chance of survival if he was aesculapianly treatedif not he was given a few months to live. When told this, the man wanted tosuicide. A t first he was scared but after talking with the doctor he decided totake medical treatment and be closer to his family in his final days. If thishad happened under the Oregon Law, he would have asked a doctor to assist him insuicide and the doctor would have assisted him without any problem since he hadno mental illness.     Doctors can cause or hastened death without the patients request. Thiscan be seen in the Netherlands were a 30 year-old man who was H.I.V.-positive,but had no symptoms and may not develop them for years, was helped to die.Probably the doctors didnt explain that even if he had a terminal disease hecould enjoy the rest of his life with his family and friend that were about tolose him.     Doctors arent accomplished to do this in medical school and the publicdoesnt know better. This is because doctors aren t trained properly in therelief of pain and discomfort in terminally ill patients. And time should bedevoted in medical schools to explain to the hereafter doctors that there are goingto be some patients that they are not going to be able to save but must addresstheir needs. as well as the public hasnt been properly educated about the choicesthey have at the end of their life.     The purpose of this work is to create a national commission that wouldstudy the care of the terminally ill giving treatment to the dying patients.Both people who support and oppose euthanasia will be able to participate having

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Is Psychotherapy More Effective When Therapist Disclose Information Ess

Is Psychotherapy More Effective When Therapist Disclose Information About Themselves? In the world of psychology healer raise a top dog whether or not they should disclose personal schooling during psychotherapy. Several healers run through suggested that therapist self-discloser can drive home a positive imp consummation on treatment. From this view, self-discloser by the therapists may elicit greater discloser by the client enhancing the possibilities for client self-exploration(e.g., Bugental, 1965, chap. 7 Jourad, 1971, chap. 17 Strassberg, Roback, DAntonio & Gable, 1977). In addition, self-discloser is thought to encourage an atmosphere of honesty and instinct between client and therapist, fostering a stronger and more effective therapeutic relationship). However many other therapist disagrees with that statement. They reply psychodynamic theorist since Freud have generally regarded therapist self-disclosure as detrimental to treatment because it might interfere with t he therapeutic process, shifting the focus of therapy away from the client(e.g., canvas cutis, 1982b Freud, 1912/1958 Greenson, 1967, chap. 3). In addition, it is argued that therapist self-discloser may adversely affect treatment outcome by exposing therapist weakness or vulnerabilities, thitherby undermining client trust in the therapist(e.g., see cutis, 1982b, 1981)According to the journal These differences in identifying therapist self-disclosures may be of importance in the evaluation of their impact on treatment. For example, theoretical concerns about therapist self-discloser have emphasized the risk of shifting the focus of therapy away from the client. However when therapist self-disclose, are in direct response to comparable client disclosers the presumed risk of watchfulness the focus of treatment is likely to reduced. The study clientsThere are a total of 36 clients that participated in the study, 15 being men and 21 being women. All of the clients requested therapy an d also the clients are over the age of 18. Exclude from the study were clients exhibiting sings of psychotic behavior, disoriented thinking, or neurological impairment. The repute age of the clients is 27, the range 18-42. The client presenting problem included issues such as depression, social or performance anxiety, relationship conflicts or lack of impulse control. none of the client where ... ...erapist self-discloser may adversely affect treatment outcome by exposing therapist weakness or vulnerabilities, thereby undermining client trust in the therapist(e.g., see cutis, 1982b, 1981).In reading this study, the main aspect I realize was none of the clients had any sever problem. This might have been one of the reason why the study came out so positive. If a therapist disclose personal information to a client without a sever problem, I line up there could be a good chance of a positive outcome. However, I feel that if a client has a sever problem this act should not take place because the therapist is now shifting the focus of therapy away from the client(e.g., see cutis, 1982b Freud, 1912/1958 Greenson, 1967, chap. 3) and that it self is damaging the client. In summation I feel that this study is true to a certain point what was not put to study was the levels of problem the clients were facing and to determine the level of improvement. I feel that this act should only take place when clients have minor problem and not major problem. In addition, if a therapist decided to disclose personal information it should be in the interest of the client and not the therapist

Finding Yourself Essay -- Essays Papers

Finding YourselfHidden under every cloak, every item of clothing, and all makeup lies a body. Under the skin of a body lies a soul, and a mind of thoughts. Reaching further we searchfor where the thoughts were born.As an embryo we are brought into this world, and raised by our creators. Fromthem we are taught life. Depending on our parents or whoever is raising us we become aperson, with thoughts, feelings, emotions, and ideas.Looking deeper it becomes clear that all ideas exist from aspects we have learned. A single thought is also an embryo, born, and than created by its creator. Thoughts exist from teachers and learning and so we are taught the limits humans have, and the opportunities available, all of which exist only because they have been taught. Had the first teacher of life said humans fecal matter walk on water, than todays reality would find us walking on water as a common means of travel.Is it viable that reality is made of thoughts, goals, and than achievements? Years ago when the first rocket took off from Earth astronauts were created. It was from a thought that reality changed and allowed for space travel. A thought provokes change, and further development for a race, but where did the thought develop?Almost everything a child learns they are taught. The world becomes a movie to expect and learn from, leaving parents and guardians to be the critics. Every child has the choice to become any of the things it observes be...

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Strategic Management Essay -- Business Analysis Management

Every firm competing in an industry has a competitive scheme. Strategy is the direction and scope of an formation over the long-term which achieves advantage for the cheek through its structure of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfill stakeholder expectations. In other words, schema is about the direction in which the origin is trying to move in the long term. A strategy should help in finding the potential markets in which the business competes and its corresponding activities. It should help in analyzing the resources needed to compete, example skills, assets, finance, technical know-how etc. Strategies should help in Analyzing the external environmental factors that affects the ability of the business to compete. in conclusion it should help in analyzing the values and expectations of the stakeholders who break the power in and out of the business. The organizations strategy must be fo rmulated in such a agency that it has a unique distinctiveness which is clear specified. This distinctiveness must place the organization in the potential market with a strong base . The strategy developed will be undefeated when it fits into the companys activities and they should balance each other and they should supply the right benefits to the firm and its customers. The ultimate concept is to position the firm in a way that will batten down its survival in the long term among the competitive environment. The various elements of strategies are strategical planning, strategic thinking and strategic care. Strategic planning is a management tool. It serves one of the main purpose as a management tool i.e., to help an organiz... ...al and the dynamic approaches are as important. The organizations will prove to be more successful when they apply both these strategic approaches. The organization should know where it is heading to and must also be strong enough to grab the new opportunities and take changes in the competitive market to gain a competitive advantage. BIBLIOGRAPHY Strategic watchfulness - An Integrated Approach Charles W. L. hill / Gareth R. Jones (Third and Sixth Edition )Strategic Management - Issues and Cases Paul Dobson, Kenneth Starkey and John Richards Competitive Strategy - Techniques for analyzing industries and competitorsMichael E . Porter WEBSITES 1. www.findarticles.com2. www.pim.com3. www.tutor2u.net4. www.whatcar.com5. www.strategyclub.com Strategic Management Essay -- Business abbreviation Management Every firm competing in an industry has a competitive strategy. Strategy is the direction and scope of an organization over the long-term which achieves advantage for the organization through its structure of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfill stakeholder expectations. In other words, strat egy is about the direction in which the business is trying to move in the long term. A strategy should help in finding the potential markets in which the business competes and its corresponding activities. It should help in analyzing the resources needed to compete, example skills, assets, finance, technical know-how etc. Strategies should help in Analyzing the external environmental factors that affects the ability of the business to compete. Finally it should help in analyzing the values and expectations of the stakeholders who have the power in and out of the business. The organizations strategy must be formulated in such a way that it has a unique distinctiveness which is clearly specified. This distinctiveness must place the organization in the potential market with a strong base . The strategy developed will be successful when it fits into the companys activities and they should balance each other and they should supply the right benefits to the firm and its customers. The ultimate concept is to position the firm in a way that will ensure its survival in the long term among the competitive environment. The various elements of strategies are strategic planning, strategic thinking and strategic management. Strategic planning is a management tool. It serves one of the main purpose as a management tool i.e., to help an organiz... ...al and the dynamic approaches are equally important. The organizations will prove to be more successful when they apply both these strategic approaches. The organization should know where it is heading to and must also be quick enough to grab the new opportunities and welcoming changes in the competitive market to gain a competitive advantage. BIBLIOGRAPHY Strategic Management - An Integrated Approach Charles W. L. Hill / Gareth R. Jones (Third and Sixth Edition )Strategic Management - Issues and Cases Paul Dobson, Kenneth Starkey and John Richards Competitive Strategy - Techniques for analyzing industries and competitorsMichael E . Porter WEBSITES 1. www.findarticles.com2. www.pim.com3. www.tutor2u.net4. www.whatcar.com5. www.strategyclub.com

Strategic Management Essay -- Business Analysis Management

Every firm competing in an industry has a competitive strategy. Strategy is the direction and domain of an organization over the long-term which achieves return for the organization through its structure of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfill stakeholder expectations. In some other words, strategy is about the direction in which the wrinkle is trying to move in the long term. A strategy should attention in finding the probable markets in which the business competes and its corresponding activities. It should help in analyzing the resources needed to compete, example skills, assets, finance, technical know-how etc. Strategies should help in Analyzing the external environmental factors that affects the ability of the business to compete. Finally it should help in analyzing the determine and expectations of the stakeholders who have the power in and out of the business. The organizations strategy must be formulated in such a way that it has a unique particularity which is clearly specified. This distinctiveness must place the organization in the potential market with a strong bagful . The strategy developed impart be successful when it fits into the companys activities and they should balance each other and they should supply the right benefits to the firm and its customers. The ultimate concept is to position the firm in a way that will ensure its survival in the long term among the competitive environment. The various elements of strategies argon strategic planning, strategic thought process and strategic management. strategic planning is a management tool. It serves one of the main purpose as a management tool i.e., to help an organiz... ...al and the dynamic approaches are equally important. The organizations will prove to be more successful when they apply both these strategic approaches. The organization should know where it is heading to an d must also be quick enough to grab the red-hot opportunities and welcoming changes in the competitive market to gain a competitive advantage. BIBLIOGRAPHY Strategic Management - An Integrated get down Charles W. L. Hill / Gareth R. Jones (Third and Sixth Edition )Strategic Management - Issues and Cases Paul Dobson, Kenneth Starkey and John Richards Competitive Strategy - Techniques for analyzing industries and competitorsMichael E . Porter WEBSITES 1. www.findarticles.com2. www.pim.com3. www.tutor2u.net4. www.whatcar.com5. www.strategyclub.com Strategic Management Essay -- strain Analysis Management Every firm competing in an industry has a competitive strategy. Strategy is the direction and scope of an organization over the long-term which achieves advantage for the organization through its structure of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfill stakeholder expectat ions. In other words, strategy is about the direction in which the business is trying to move in the long term. A strategy should help in finding the potential markets in which the business competes and its corresponding activities. It should help in analyzing the resources needed to compete, example skills, assets, finance, technical know-how etc. Strategies should help in Analyzing the external environmental factors that affects the ability of the business to compete. Finally it should help in analyzing the values and expectations of the stakeholders who have the power in and out of the business. The organizations strategy must be formulated in such a way that it has a unique distinctiveness which is clearly specified. This distinctiveness must place the organization in the potential market with a strong base . The strategy developed will be successful when it fits into the companys activities and they should balance each other and they should supply the righ t benefits to the firm and its customers. The ultimate concept is to position the firm in a way that will ensure its survival in the long term among the competitive environment. The various elements of strategies are strategic planning, strategic thinking and strategic management. Strategic planning is a management tool. It serves one of the main purpose as a management tool i.e., to help an organiz... ...al and the dynamic approaches are equally important. The organizations will prove to be more successful when they apply both these strategic approaches. The organization should know where it is heading to and must also be quick enough to grab the new opportunities and welcoming changes in the competitive market to gain a competitive advantage. BIBLIOGRAPHY Strategic Management - An Integrated Approach Charles W. L. Hill / Gareth R. Jones (Third and Sixth Edition )Strategic Management - Issues and Cases Paul Dobson, Kenneth Starkey an d John Richards Competitive Strategy - Techniques for analyzing industries and competitorsMichael E . Porter WEBSITES 1. www.findarticles.com2. www.pim.com3. www.tutor2u.net4. www.whatcar.com5. www.strategyclub.com

Monday, May 27, 2019

Poverty Reduction Essay

P everywherety reduction requires us to be clear ab turn up what we mean by meagreness, who atomic number 18 the embarrassed-down and what is the best way to abet deal escape poverty. Discuss with reference to the multi-dimensionality of poverty?Poverty is a term used to refer to the poorer volume of society local, issue and global, whether this is relative poverty, where wad in that society suffer receivable to the cost of musical accompaniment and lack of income or absolute poverty, where people conflict with acquiring even the most basic of needs. There is huge debate about what is regarded as poverty as within the context of multi-dimensionality of poverty, people whitethorn be regarded as relatively poor in one country but relatively loaded in other countries. Defining who is poor and who is non poor is no easy task. (Worldpoverty, 2010) tells us that originally, everyone was poor, but with technological developments, some people gained wealth, which was not bene ss distributed effectively, which caused a growing division between the wealthy and the poor.However, the main issue is that the countries that have the wealth, relative and absolute poverty still exist. Taking the USA as an example, it is estimated that despite being one of the richest countries in the world, up to 25% of the population are considered to be in relative poverty because they do not have the same maneuver of wealth as others. pop of the 25%, a further 3% are estimated to be in absolute poverty, meaning they cannot afford even the most basic of goods, much(prenominal) as a roof over their heads or food (Worldpoverty, 2010). Those in poverty in the USA are proportionately poor to those in the same website as people who live within less veritable countries, not only because they are the poorest, but because of the cost of living in distinct countries differs greatly (Davis, 2008).Despite this, people who reside in the USA are still considered to be richer than pe ople in some African countries, where people live on less than $1USD a day (UNDP, 2008). This informs us that people in absolute poverty in more than than developed countries are arguably better rack up than people in less developed countries this adds to the varying dimensions about what people regard as poverty.Although not an official term for this situation, these people are living in True Poverty, where they are the poorest people in the world and are not better off than anyone else in the world. We can see that when canvas the poor in different countries although some may earn more than others, the cost ofliving has to be taken into account, which is why it is harder to escape poverty in richer countries due to the high costs of basic goods. Nevertheless, given this variability, clearly, this is just one element of what is ack directlyledged as part of the multidimensionality of poverty.We already know that people in poverty do not have the means to purchase all the basic goods for a suitable lifestyle or cannot afford even the basics, but how do we actually determine the point where someone is in poverty and how is it shown. This can mainly be shown in the form of economic modelling. (Sloman & Wride, 2009) demonstrates the Lorenz curve and the Gini-Coefficient to discuss the comment of poverty on a national scale. The ideal situation would be where everyone has the same level of wealth, which would represent the perfect income scattering line (45 degrees). However, this exit neer be the case, as there will be some people with more wealth than others and therefore it would be highly impractical since some people will inevitably consume more than others.The Lorenz curve shows the distribution of the national income as a proportion of between the rich and the poor. Because a relatively low proportion of rich people have more of the national wealth, this makes the curve steep towards the end. This results in a smaller amount of national wealth being distributed between the poorer people. The Gini-Coefficient shows the ine spirit between the Lorenz curve and the perfect income distribution line. In an ideal situation to combat poverty, more of the poorer people require more of the wealth. Consequently, the commence the Gini-Coefficient, the more effective the attempt at alleviating poverty in that country will become. Since this is only a national model and it only uses national income, it cannot be used on a global scale this is mainly due to there being too many circumstances to take into account when comparing rich and poor countries. There are believed to be many different possible ways to combat poverty, but there is no defined integrity solution as of yet. The global residential district define poverty as people in third world countries within this context, the main objective and aims let in charitable efforts towards alleviating the poverty within these areas. One of these aims is to help people to help themselves.Par ticular issues arise from fundraising and transitionary procedures, where communication issues can arise whilst providing people with the necessary workmanship knowledge and skills to fend for themselves. One of the most widely considered views on tackling poverty is to train people in poverty with skills to help them fend for themselves more effectively, or even more efficiently. Many different charitable organisations aim to help with this type of poverty alleviation. (Smith, 2005) discusses the views that charitable organisers have to identify what it is that poor communities lack and because help these communities by providing the appropriate dressing and resources, which in turn can be used to create a better living environment that is more sustainable and potentially more environmentally friendly. In addition to this, some poor communities are being held back by Local and global forces which hider the quality of life.By working with these particular forces, living conditions and community relations would generally improve, particularly if this involves extreme poverty cases. In one particular case study, the transnational liberality CAFOD has overseen development operations in a town called Soweto, just outside of Kenyas capital Nairobi. A short video clip shows how the charity has helped unify the slum town and helped to create jobs through skill development and business entrepreneurship courses. As a result, more people in the town now run their own small businesses and are slowly earning more money to help sustain their own lives (CAFOD, 2007). Additional support has been implemented in community and co-operative projects, such as the communal farm, where animals are raised by the community and the proceeds after selling these animals is shared throughout the town. The way in which the training has been incorporated into peoples lives has ensured that the townsfolk have become more independent.The skills that have been learned by some of the poor populations will eventually be passed down from generation to generation, which alike implies that the sustainability of the development project is strong. There are many different global organisations that set out to help people to help themselves, which is a very effective way to help people out of extreme poverty. But how do we tackle the types of poverty in developed countries such as the UK or the USA? People who reside within these countries and are classed as living in poverty are classed as living on very low or no income at all and are heavily dependent on state benefits. (Atkinson, 1995) explains with references to the Lorenz curve and the Gini co-efficient that over time the distribution of wealth has become slightlymore equal.Fig.2 shows how since 1949, there have been some effective efforts to alleviate a small proportion of the poverty in the UK and how over this period, a small percentage of the wealth has been taken from the top 10% and given to the butt 50%, thus reducing the Gini-Coefficient. (Atkinson, 1995) also explains that this has been achieved through more efficient management of collecting taxes. Despite parts of the information not being consistent, a basic analysis of this data illustrates that the Gini-Coefficient had indeed fallen by 4% over the course of the 30 years in question. However over this period of time, not all of the reduction in top lolly was being transferred to the bottom 50%. Instead a large share of the reduction was being transferred to the next 40%, which doesnt particularly help the bottom 50% of earners. Using this example, another strategy that could be used to assist those in poverty is to increase the tax rate on high earners more, redistributing the national income more fairly.This is a scheme already in effect, however high earners are finding loopholes within these tax regulations which restrict the amount of money being redistributed. (Robin Hood Tax, 2010)There is some debate however of imposing a ne w tax so small (est. 0.05% on all transactions over 10,000 GBP), it will be almost impossible to avoid. However even 10,000 would only result in a tax bill of 5 which is well worth paying. By adding these very small amounts together, the funds that could be generated are estimated to be over 300Billion GBP a year. The idea is supported by well over 100 different charities and relief organisations, who would use the money generated to fund all kinds of work to relieve many different types of poverty in many different countries, both developed and developing.Using this method of relief collection will ensure the fight against poverty is well funded because the main cause of poverty ties down to money at the end. Another method to solve poverty would be to develop and implement a stronger wellbeing system, which could work out for both developed and developing countries. (Schiller, 2004) argues that in most cases poverty is caused by a bad upbringing, based on family morals, lack of a decent education and thus the inability to be financially independent. There is also the strong argument that poverty can be caused by people that dontwant to work and are happy to receive welfare and be classed as in poverty, thus creating a trade-off between income provision and work incentives.If governments wish to reduce the level of poverty in their country, they need to make jobs more appealing and financially rewarding, although with the current economic climate this is easier said than done. The real issue here is that if a solution is to be found using this strategy, it will no doubt not be in the best interests for everyone sacrifices and compromises will have to be make at some stage. The types of welfare should depend on whether people dont want to work or cant work, through illness, handicap or age. (Schiller, 2004) also argues that it is tough to distinguish the potentially employable people from the rest of the poor, so these would be solved by utilising separate w elfare systems, which would aim to satisfy as many people as possible.Obtaining the right welfare solutions would bring some people above the poverty line, although mismanaging these systems could see those already out of poverty falling below the line. From this, employment schemes would offer my incentives such as pay increases, additional training or even promotion prospects. Helping people out of poverty should start with correcting the right level of service they currently receive and helping them get into work.In conclusion, to solve poverty, and its many different dimensions, it is key to establish the nature of the poverty and how serious it actually is. For those in extreme poverty, especially in developing countries it would be appropriate to include more assistance with regards to developing skills which can be used to start trades and cooperative community projects, ensuring people help themselves out of poverty, or even the whole community. For people in developed cou ntries however, the current welfare systems that people utilise, may need revising as some people require more help than others. The prospects of working also need to be more appealing than basically living off the welfare state to ensure people lift themselves out of poverty and hopefully stay that way but those still in poverty while working do require the extra financial assistance to escape poverty.ReferencesAtkinson, A. B. (1995). Incomes and the welfare state. Cambridge CambridgeUniversity Press. CAFOD. (2007). Kenya Helping people out of poverty. Retrieved March Tuesday 2nd, 2010, from Youtube http//www.youtube.com/watch?v=YRopnCUpwGA Robin Hood Tax. (2010). Retrieved March Tuesday 2nd, 2010, from http//robinhoodtax.org.uk/ Schiller, B. (2004). The economics of poverty and discrimination 9th edition. Pearson assimilator Hall. Sloman, J., & Wride, A. (2009). Economics seventh edition. Harlow Prentice Hall. Smith, S. C. (2005). Ending global Poverty. Palgrave Macmillan. UNDP. (2008). Human poverty index. Retrieved March Monday 1st, 2010, from Human development reports http//hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/indices/hpi/ Worldpoverty. (2010). Retrieved March Monday 1st, 2010, from World Poverty http//world-poverty.org/default.aspxBibliographyDavis, M. (2008). Dealing with Poverty. Retrieved March Monday 1st, 2010, from Hubpages http//hubpages.com/hub/Dealing-with-Poverty Dwyer, R. (2010). Poverty, successfulness and Place The shape of class segregation in the age of extremes. Social Problems , 114-137. Havnevik, K. (2000). The institutional context of poverty eradication in rural Africa. Stockholm Elanders Gotab. Qisilbash, M. (2003). On the Arbitrariness and Robustness of Multi-Dimensional Poverty Rankings. Retrieved March Monday 1st, 2010, from UIA http//www.uia.mx/humanismocristiano/seminario_capability/pdf/17.pdf WorldBank. (2005). Poverty Lines. Retrieved March Monday 1st, 2010, from World Bank http//siteresources.worldbank.org/PGLP/Resources/povertymanual _ch3.pdfAppendixFig.1 Bowes, P (2010) derived from Sloman, J & Wride, A (2009) Economics 7th edition. Harlow Prentice Hall Fig.2 Bowes, P (2010) derived from Atkinson, A B (1995) Incomes and the welfare state. Cambridge Cambridge University press, pp17 Table 1.1

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Dr.George Borg Olivier

Dr. George Borg Olivier (1950-1955, 1962-1971) Notary Giorgio Borg Olivier, was born in Valletta on the 5th July, 1911. He was educated at the Lyceum, Malta, and the Royal university of Malta. He graduated Doctor of Laws in 1937. In 1939 he was elected to the Council of Government. With the return of responsible Government in 1947 Dr. Borg Olivier was elected to the Legislative Assembly. In 1950 he held the post of Minister of whole kit and boodle and reconstruction and the post of Minister of Education in the Government led by Dr Enrico Mizzi.He succeeded Dr Mizzi as undercoat Minster and Minister of Justice on the latters death in declination 1950. After the general elections held in May 1951, Borg Olivier formed a coalition Government with the Malta Works Party. He was Head of the new Government, he retained the Ministry of Works and Reconstruction. He was again returned to office in 1953 and was Head of a Coalition Government with the Malta Workers Party until he was defeate d in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 Dr Borg Olivier was leader of Opposition.He led the delegations in June and kinsfolk 1955 for the Malta Round Table Conference and in November 1958 he led a delegation for talks in London about the restoration of self-government. followers the February 1962 election, Giorgio Borg Olivier accepted to form a Government after obtaining important amendments to the Constitution. In step-up to being premier(a) Minister, he assumed the portfolio of Minister of Economic grooming and Finance. In June he made a formal request for independence and in September of the same year he attended the Commonwealth Prime Ministers Meeting.On the 13th July, 1963, Borg Olivier headed a Government delegation for the Malta Independence Conference at the end of which it was announced that Malta would become independent. After having had a series of talks with the British Government and after preparing a Constitution for and independent Malta, which was endorsed by Parliament and approved by the people in a referendum held in February 1964, and the 21st September was set as Maltas Independence Day.On Independence Day the degree of Doctor of Literature (Honoris Causa) was conferred on Borg Olivier by the Royal University of Malta. On 25th January, 1964, Borg Olivier was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Sylvester, Pope, by His Holiness Pope capital of Minnesota VI. In November 1964, he was received by His Holiness Pope Paul VI and made Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Pius IX. In March 1965, he became Minister of commonwealth and Foreign Affairs in addition to his duties as Prime Minister and Minister of Economic Planning and Finance.In the General Elections held in March 1966, the Nationalist Party was again returned to power with Borg Olivier as Prime Minister and Minister of Commonwealth and Foreign Affairs. On the 14th June, 1968, Dr Borg Olivier was decorated with the Grand Cross of Merit of the Order of Malta by the Grand Master of th e crowned head Military Hospitallier Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta. Giorgio Borg Olivier married Alexandra Mattei in 1943. They have one daughter Angela, and two sons Alexander and Peter. Died on 29th October, 1980.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Sales Project Report on Wall”S

debateS Introduction palisades was bought by Mac fisheries in 1920 who then sold Walls to Lever Brothers in 1922. In 1922 by the 1950s, wartime rationing produced a risky appetite for scum pickaxe sales reached ? 46 million by 1959 and Walls unfastened a bounteous ice cream factory in Gloucester. Supermarkets began to stock ice creams in addition to small advanced street shops. Market research in the 1970s showed that practically any one and only(a) loved ice cream. Walls ice cream started product. Walls ice cream introduced in 1995 in Pakistan down the stairs unilever distinguish.Unilever is one of the biggest brands in Pakistan and 56 other brands argon registered under unilever brand. Meeting the everyday needs of community everywhere. It is the world number 1 in ice-cream, margarine, and tea-based beverages also in personal wash, prestige fragrances and deodorants. Unilevers packaged foods business is the worlds third largest after Nestle and Kraft. Yet at the same time, the group has pruned its portfolio by 75%, disposing of some regional products and rebranding others in order to concentrate on a smaller roster of global power brands.Advertising Age estimated global metric advertising expenditure of $3. 5bn in 2004 making Unilever the worlds number 3 advertisers. ?Founded 1930 ?Employees 350,000 ?Sales $25. 3 Billion ?Profits $982 Million ?Headquarters London, England and Rotterdam the Netherlands ? 3d-largest company in Britain ? fields largest margarine producer ?Worlds largest soap and detergent maker ?Worlds largest maker of packaged tea ?Worlds largest ice cream maker ?Worlds 3rd-largest advertiser ?Worlds 16th largest industrial company ?Rank Worlds largest consumer products companyUnilever is one of the worlds leading food companies. Our passion for understanding what state want and need from their food and what they love approximately it makes our brands a popular choice. In the belated 19th century the businesses that wou ld later become Unilever were among the most philanthropic of their time. They set up projects to improve the lot of their workers and created products with a positive social impact, making hygiene and personal c are commonplace and improving nutrition through adding vitamins to foods that were already daily staples.The decade starts with the launch of Path to Growth, a five-year strategic plan, and in 2004 except sharpens its focus on the needs of 21st century-consumers with its Vitality cut downion. Ice cream is made from milk, fat and sugar. These are cooled as they are mixed, then whipped to create a light, airy texture. Flavourings, fruit or cocoa are added then the whole mixture is frozen again before packaging. Walls have been continuously adding new products to its lam. As a result Walls has registered a significant increase in its sale volume during the last ten years in Pakistan. Mission Statement Unilevers mission is to add vitality to life. We meet everyday needs f or nutrition hygiene and personal care with brands that help heap feel ethical, look good and get more out of life. Walls dance Acquisition In 1994 Lever Brothers Pakistan tried to acquire Polka Ice Cream for Rs 600 million. Polka ref employ the bid, demanding instead Rs. 1 billion. One year after the launch of Walls Ice Cream by Lever Brothers in 1995, Polka approached Walls with an offer to merge the two companies. In 1998 Polka merged into Walls both combined with one and other. After the merging they are working together for last 7 years.On Polka packaging there is a brand mark of Walls ice cream. Walls has a 28% share in the ice cream market 25% of which comes from the take billet range and 64% of the inclination range the highest in the entire industry. Taste the fun side of life Mention ice cream and most people think of the Heart brand. The brand with the big red heart logo is behind more much-loved ice cream classics from indulgent treats like Magnum and Cornetto. Making you gifted Few foods are guaranteed to impersonate a smile on peoples faces like ice cream. But while ice cream should always be fun, weve an ever-growing range of lower fat, lower sugar products.Heart brand in a flash provi stilbesterol lighter versions for those watching the calories and smaller sizes for smaller appetites, as well old favorites theres something for everyone Some ice creams are best as an occasional indulgence, but others can be a regular treat, and eaten sensibly, ice cream can be part of a vigorous balanced diet. Heart brand is developing products that are lower in fat, sugar-free, lactose-free, as well as low-crab options and those with more nutritional goodies like calcium and fruit. fundamental facts Unilever is the worlds biggest ice cream manufacturer, with an annual turnover of 5 billion. Heart brand products are sold in more than 40 countries. The Heart brand operates under different names in different markets (Walls in the UK and most parts of Asia, Algida in Italy, Langnese in Germany, Kibon in Brazil, and Ola in the Netherlands). Ice cream is an impulse buying product it is related to happiness, fun and togetherness. Ice cream is a frozen product made from a combination of milk products and eggs, sugar dextrose corn syrup etc. It was once considered a sophisticated item of food is now becoming increasingly popular among the people.There are small, medium and large manufacturers of ice cream in Pakistan. Walls have divided the ice-cream products into three main categories. 1. impulse item 2. In home 3. bulk pack Impulse point in time Impulse items are produce especially for kids and teenagers. KIDS It includes Rocket, Twister, Bigger Three, and Vanilla cup, Rainbow Berry Dip and Choc Dip which are for kids. SLOGAN All Action All Walls TEENAGERS It includes jet sport, Kings Kulfa , Mango Kings KulfaVanilla, and Choc Bar, Cornetto, Pop cone,Chocolate Passion, Magnum, and Feast SLOGAN All Hearts All Walls. IN HOMEIn h ome ice cream products are especially designed For family and adults which includes liter and half liter packs also Have half and full packs. It includes Tutti Fruity, Cassatta, Kings Kulfa, Mango, Chocolate chip and many more. BULK remove These are for dealers and hotels and Walls providing in large Or big quantity in the form of big packs. Walls deal with pizza Hut, McDonalds, major shopping centers, stores, vendor. Annual Growth Rate 13. 37% is annual growth rate of the walls company And walls ice creams remain the best. SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths Strong brand equity. Quality product Larger dealers network Country wide accessibility Production under Unilever brand is one of the biggest strength for company Innovative (using latest technology for the manufacturing of the ice cream and all system is computerized) Unique innovative packing Weaknesses Perception about the company is that it is specially made for high class consumers. This perception is affecting company image alt hough Walls is making ice cream for every class and they have those products which are ranging from 5 to 30 which can be affordable for the poor people. Weather barrier is also the factor which is affecting the production of the ice cream and can be taken as a weakness for the Walls Product price high with respect to the rival in some flavors Opportunities Range of the products can be increased especially for the kids Kids are the big opportunities for the company Increase in the population Unilever brand is the big opportunity for the Walls as it is well known internationally Threats If any multinational company launch ice-cream product then it will be a big threat for the company but up till now company is not facing any kind of threat interchange Techniques Let people know you sell ice cream Show customers and passersby that you sell ice cream by displaying POS items such as pavement signs, flags and use bins outside your store. This may result in further impulse buys, growing your overall business. 2 Keep your storage locker clean and full Only 50% of intended ice cream barter fors result in a sale due to unappealing cabinets. Check your stock regularly and clean and defrost your cabinet to attract more sales and keep running costs down. 3 Stock the best sellersStock the best marketing brands in each of 4 segments chocolate snacks, cones, adult refreshment and kids to make it easier for your customers to find what they want 4 Make your cabinet easy to find Place your cabinet in a high traffic flow area near to the till and ideally amongst other impulse products. 5 Draw attention to your cabinet Use indoor POS items such as freezer display boards, basket labels and cabinet stickers to make your cabinet stand out. 6 Stock ice cream all your round A third of all ice cream sales are made during the winter months, so stock up now and dont miss out. Distribution ne of the competitive advantage of bulwarkS is its availabilty, which is ensured by extensive distribution. The distribution of icecream is different from other products. To keep it in a good form it moldiness be chilled at appropriate temprature. For thid purpose deep freezers are used, which are provided by the company. However the running costs are to be paid by the retailer. For this purpose walls gives a margin of 18% to its retailerdistributors, which is distributed over entire channel. Pakistan is divided in three major sections. These are as follows 1) North ( Islamabad, Peshawar, Northren Areas) 2) important Central Punjab and Lahore) 3) South ( Sindh and Balochistan) Disribution Channel Distribution is making the product available but this availablity should ensure that product must be 1- At right place 2- At right time 3- In right condition groinS have a hybrid distribution system. It reaches different customers with different systems. WALLS is using two types of ditribution channels, both are indirect channels. Producer Distributor Retailer Consume r RetailerSecurity forthe freezersInvestment onIce cream productsBoard for advertisementTotal investment required Others1500012-15,000300030,000WALLSNil12-15,000Nil15,000 promotional Strategies Promotional strategies of WALLs ice-cream is consistent. It uses Pull strategy for promoting its product because WALLs spent a lot on advertising and consumer promotion to build up consumer demand. Promotional Budget One of the hardest marketing decisions facing a company is how much to spend on promotion. How des a company decide on its promotion budget WALLs ice-cream uses Objective-and-Task Method to set its budget for promotional activities.This budgeting method entails (1) defining specialized promotion objectives, (2) determining the tasks needed to achieve these objectives, and (3) estimating the cost of performing these tasks. The sum of these costs is the proposed promotion budget. Walls determine its specific tasks to achieve its objectives which are defined by the companys managem ent, to achieve these objectives WALLs estimates the costs of different tasks, which are to be done to promote its products. 1. Promotional Objectives Promotional objectives of the WALLs ice-cream are as follows Inform Persuade RemindCompanies inform the people when they dont know about the product, persuasion takes place when people already know about the product and company forces them to buy the product and when companies is selling enough quantities of a product it reminds consumers about the product to keep the sales at the same level in future. Promotion is important for firms in many ways. It helps to establish image of product, which the manufacture wants to portray, and also the personality of product. It informs the people, creates awareness and helps in positioning and repositioning of the product.With promotional tools company can tell about the availability of product, company can justify prices or can communicate the features of the product. WALLS is not promoting its products individually because WALLS believe that the high character reference it is providing through its products are more than sufficient to prove its identity. We believe that now there is a need for WALLS to promote its products separately as international competition is coming as well. 2. Tasks Selection of different promotional tools advertising and media schedules and what types of message are delivered to the target audience. WALLs uses Advertising and Sales Promotion. . Cost/Budget Estimated budget of WALLs of promotion is Rs. 2. 5 million (est. ) Promotional Tools 1. ADVERTISEMENT WALLS is creating awareness about its new products such as supper Cornetto, Carte DOR for this purpose it is using huge signboards on the major square of the cities and more importantly both the print and electronic media for advertisement and for that it is following AIDA model. Awareness The WALLS uses print and electronic media sum the signboards initially just to create awareness and knowl edge about its new product as these days it is giving A lot of adds of both of its fresh launched producs Super Cornetto. Interest As the public gets awareness of the produces of WALLS the next step is to create interest among the target buyers about the product which is again done through advertisement. Desire The WALLS create curiosity among the customers and transform that curiosity into the desire of the product. Action Finally to make the customer purchase the product this is the final thing to be done in model. The WALLS follows a sequential pattern through which it strengthens its newly launched products. Or to put in another way, the concept can be very well understood with the help of the above given building blocks InformPersuade Remind Companies inform the people when they dont know about the product, persuasion takes place when people already know about the product and company forces them to buy the product and when companies is selling enough quantities of a product it reminds consumers about the product to keep the sales at the same level in future. Promotion is important for firms in many ways. It helps to establish image of product, which the manufacture wants to portray, and also the personality of product. It informs the people, creates awareness and helps in positioning and repositioning of the product.With promotional tools company can tell about the availability of product, company can justify prices or can communicate the features of the product. WALLS is not promoting its products individually because WALLS believe that the high quality it is providing through its products are more than sufficient to prove its identity. We believe that now there is a need for WALLS to promote its products separately as international competition is coming as well. The theme of advertisement varies with the product image and positioning. But walls follow the same theme internationally.The advertisements run on TV are made in foreign countries. The objec tives of advertising are the three basic ones which include informing, persuading and reminding about different brands of walls. WALLS have used all sorts of mediums of mass communication and one to one bases. The mediums used in WALLS promotional activities are TV Billboards News papers Magazines radio set Banners Pamphlets Stands in shops Shop boards Sponsorships of pop stars, actors, models Event arrangements Bus Stop Board Ads Fun carnival carried out in different parks such as Racecourse Park 2.SALES PROMOTION WALLS has been going a number of sales promotion activities like the 1- Cycling System WALLS started its cycling system for awareness but after that its task was modified into doing sales promotions for the company. And also cycling system has proved excellent in terms of sales and promotion. 2- Discount Coupons WALLS launches very low price products for the purpose of both market expansion and sales promotion. Like Solo for Rs. 2 and Liter pack for Rs. 45 was also to boost sales. 3- Discounts and Offerings Walls offered 5% discount in off- mollify. 3. Public RelationsFor strengthening itself in relationship markets WALLS is not only going for customer satisfaction but also stressing upon building strong public relations. For example, under the umbrella of Unilever, WALLS has been trying to part in charity activities and also to stay in front in national and religion events. For instance events like Valentines Day. WALLS uses such occasions to not only promote its sales but also to build strong public relationships through sponsoring events on this day. Moreover, it has recently started organizing colorful Fun Carnivals too, which is totally a family affair.This is just an instance WALLS tries to gain maximum of such opportunities. 1. Customers Price discounts Quantity discounts 2. Distributors Shares 50% of the distributors expenses Off season discounts 5% 3. Retailers Free freezers to retailers Investment on each retailer Rs. 22,00 0 Free freezers maintenance 4. Street Vendors Free Trikes To strengthen its relationship with the various public and customers WALLs sponsors an Art exibition. Hierarchy of Marketing Department (sales force) National/Country marketing (sales) manager ? Zonal sales manager Area/territory sales manager ? Sales officer ?Our Suggestions REFERENCES 1. www. wallspakistan. com-0 2. www. unilever. com-1 3. www. yummy. com. pk-2 4. www. unilver. co. uk-3 5. www. walls. co. uk-4 6. www. yahoo. com-5 7. www. google. com-6 ? -0 http//www. wallspakistan. com/ -1 http//www. unilever. com/ -2 http//www. yummy. com. pk/ -3 http//www. unilver. co. uk/ -4 http//www. walls. co. uk/ -5 http//www. yahoo. com/ -6 http//www. google. com/

Friday, May 24, 2019

Chemistry of Coffee Essay

Before chocolate noggin is roasted, it is referred to as immature coffee. The green coffee is primarily made up of caffeine, lipids, carbohydrates, proteins ( aminic sharps), and radical sultrys (although inorganic acids exist in coffee as well). These groups atomic number 18 quite stable in the green phase, and it is the carbohydrates, proteins, and acids that evanesce undergo significant responses during roasting to produce coffee. The important groups of carbohydrates in beans are from the monosaccharides and the polysaccharides found in beans.The disaccharide Sucrose (C12H22O11) also plays a vital role afterwards on in coffee. Generally speaking, Monosaccharides represent the simplest forms of sugars, such as glucose and fructose, and comm only when follow the formula Cx(H2O)y. These sugars serve as building blocks for polysaccharides like starches and cellulose, which are usually long repeating chains of a basic unit or monosaccharide. All together, carbohydrates r epresent about 50% of green coffees base. amino group acids are present in green coffee at levels of about 10-13% of dry matter.Amino acids are molecules containing an amine, a carboxylic acid group (an organic acid that contains at least one carboxyl group of COOH) , and a side chain (a chemical grouping that is attached to the main group and is ad hoc to each compound). Lipids represent around 11-17% of coffee. They do not play a huge role in the chemical processes of creating coffee- rather, they act as conductors of aroma and apprehension later on in the coffee process. Caffeine, an astringent stimulant, develops in coffee as a defense mechanism in the coffee plant. Its sum remains stable byout roasting and brewing.It is highly irrigate soluble. Finally, green coffee beans contain numerous acids. Chlorogenic , Citric, phosphorous, and Quinic Acids represent some of the near important acids in the green coffee bean. A small amount of acetic acid is also present before roa sting. It forms when the coffee cherry is fermented to remove the outer pulp. different than Phosphoric acid, the major acids at work in coffee are organic. Roasting Coffee Overview In the eldest phase, the addition of coffee beans drastically drops the temperature of the roaster. The process is decalescent as the beans absorb heat to give off moisture.Around 100 degrees Celsius the temperature stabilizes as water turns into steam. This leads to an increase of pressure. Once the moisture content has been brought down, temperature increases rapidly again, and the reaction goes exothermic as sucrose begins to decompose at around 190-205 degrees C- forming steam and CO2. The increase in pressure from this reaction bursts the cells of the bean as the bean shooters. This collapse causes the bean to almost double in volume. The process goes endothermic again until about 225 degrees C and beans crack once again. This increases volume again.Subsequent roasting pushes lipids through the cells to the clear of the bean, and as the bean roasts farther pst the second crack, the volume of the bean decreases due to decomposition. Chemical Processes during Roasting Caramelization- Caramelization occurs when sucrose begins to decompose and causes the first mechanical crack of the coffee bean. The sugars produce water and carbon dioxide during the reaction, but also color and aromatics like furans (responsible for caramel- like aromas) and HMFs (hydroxymethylfurfural) (responsible for pure, sugar aromas).As the sugar caramelizes save, the aromas increase, but the original understanding of sweetness decreases. The Maillard Reaction- The Maillard reaction (discovered in 1912) is the reaction that takes place during the browning of either food. This reaction varies wildly depending on the specific reactants- It happens in seared meat and heat up bread as well as roasted coffee beans. Despite the fact that the reaction comes out with too many variants (and too many unknow ns) to go into extreme detail, basic principles govern the reaction for all variants.At its most fundamental form, the Maillard reaction is the reaction that occurs between a reducing sugar and an amino acid. Proteins are all made up of amino acids, so all proteins fix the potential to undergo the Maillard reaction. The reducing sugar required for the reaction is any sugar with an aldehyde group. Sucrose is not a reducing sugar, so its numerous other sugars like fructose, lactose, and glucose that undergo the process. The sugars and amino acids react to form molecules called melanoidins that have the brown color characteristic of the reaction.The process is complicated because different sugars and different amino acids produce different compounds. Futher complicating the browning process, the new compounds (melanoidins) react even further creating new substances. The Maillard reaction is the cause for many of the volatile aromatic compounds characteristic to coffee, as well as othe r non-volatile compounds. Strecker Degredation-Strecker Degradation falls under the sphere of the Maillard reaction. It is an intermediate step in the overall process, and involves amino acids.Rather than reacting with reducing sugars like the basis of the Maillard reactions, it requires a carbonyl compound as a reactant. The reaction yields CO2, an aldehyde, as well as an amino-ketone. This process is a significant intermediate step because it yields two products that are hugely responsible for the different smells of coffee. The Formation and disinteg symmetryn of Acids- From the four overriding acids found in green coffee beans- Chlorogenic, quinic, citric, and phosphoric two decompose and two increase.Chlorogenic acid (C16H18O9) decomposes by 60% to form caffeic (not to be confused with caffeine- not the same thing ) and quinic acid. The decomposition of chlorogenic acid in the coffee bean is directly proportional to the length of roasting. It also occurs later on in solutio n once the coffee has been brewed. Citric acid decreases as a result of the roasting process, it is is unable to withstand the roasting process, however its content does not change after it has been roasted (it doesnt change with brewing).The acid diminishes quickly as roasting levels pass the light roast stage. Phosphoric acid increases with the length of roasting, however scientists are still unclear as to why the phosphoric acid increases rather than simply remaining stable throughout the process. Other notable acids that are formed when coffee beans are roasted are lactic acid and acetic acid, these acids form due to the decomposition of polysaccharides during and following the first crack stage. Coffee Brewing and discretion.Approximately 28% of the components in roasted coffee beans are water soluble. 72% are insoluble. Brewing a cupful of good coffee depends on the balance of extraction of these components. Extraction below 16% is associated with weak, peanuty coffee, while extraction over 24% leads to a bitter brew. Taste of coffee depends on the degree of carmelization the coffee went through during roasting, the acidity of the cup, and the aromatic compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, and furans.As mentioned before, carmelization increases the aroma of the coffee, but lowers the overall sweetness of the cup. The overall body or weight of coffee simply has to do with the number of dissolved particles in the cup. Darker roasts generally have more body to them because the lipids have been brought to the surface of the bean, and are therefore more readily brewed into the coffee. A more acidic brew (not a literal term- it depends on the acids types present in the brew, the pKa, anions species present, and the buffering capacity) lends a luminance to the mouth.Below are some common acids associated with the different chilliness notes that accompany an acidic taste in the cup. -Phosphoric acid has been associated with enhancing the brightness of the co ffee, although there is still contention over which acid contributes the most to the overall acidity, especially because the majority of phosphoric acid is neutralized with the presence of potassium once its in solution. Quinic acid provides a cleanness to the brew in low quantities, but in excess leads to bitterness and astringency -Caffeic acid is generally bitter and harsh.-Citric is bright and patterned in moderation, but excess is overly sour -Acetic acid can taste fermenty and vinegary in excess but in small amounts give the coffee a winey flavor -Lactic acid is associated with a less prominent bright flavor, but like citric acid, excess tastes sour -Malic acid is a less prominent acid that is known for its apple flavor As for the various volatile aromas in coffee a few of the predominant components include Furans which are sweet , nutty, fruity, and caramel smelling -HMFs give off a clean sweet smell.-Ketones are floral, buttery, caramel, vanilla-y, and milky -Phenols in lower levels are spicy, vanilla-y, clove, and anise flavored, excess are associated with a woody, medicinal flavor. Lipids in coffee play a significant role because many of the aromatics in the coffee bean are fat- soluble rather than water soluble. The higher the lipid content, the stronger the taste of the coffee is likely to be. This is why dark roasts generally have a stronger flavor than the light roasts (although it is also due to the increase in overall flavor compounds versus sugars and intact amino acids).Espresso brewed coffee also has a stronger flavor not only due to the increase of dissolved particles relative to the water content, but because it is brewed using emulsion rather than extraction. Emulsion involves pressure as well as water to extract the elements within the bean. The high pressure brewing gets more lipids into the shot than a traditional extraction of pouring water over the coffee lawsuit would. Finally- caffeine has a mildly astringent flavor. It was no t discussed much in this paper because caffeine is relatively stable and doesnt change from green coffee to roasted coffee.Caffeine level is merely dependent on the caffeine present in the coffee cherry when it was picked and the amount of coffee brewed in ratio to the water. Contrary to popular belief, it is not actually the presence of caffeine that contributes most to the bitter flavor of coffee. Rather, it is a compound called trigonelline (C7 H9NO3), an alkaloid, and its products after degradedation during roasting, that are given the most scientific credit for coffees bitterness.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

A College Degree Is Not Worth It Essay

What is a college class charge 50,000, $150,000, $300,000? The real question should be is a college degree really worth it? A lot of students go into college not knowing what to expect, or not knowing what to do. College degrees are made of paper, the sizeableness of these degrees are valued by all the hard work you put in. There are several reasons why a college degree is not worth it. A college degree can be connected with negative associations. Getting a degree is like acquire married. Its a big close someone has to make.Theres a lot ofcost, a lot of ups and downs, and it can be very stressful. Someone shouldnt just go to college because they study everyone attending college after high school. The main number one reason why everyone wants to get a college degree is because they believe once they finish college theyll get a better employment rate rather than someone without one.According to Not All College Majors Are Created Equal, by Michelle Singletary the highest unemplo yment rate for recent graduates is mainly the highest in architecture (13. 9 percent), then in non- technical majors, such as arts (11.1 percent), humanities and liberal arts (9. 4 percent), social cognition (8. 9 percent), finally law and public policy (8. 1 percent). Having a degree is not automatically doing to get you a job, but most graduates are working in a job that does not require a degree. Focusing so much on college and perusing the goal of earning a degree can impact your social life. For many accomplishing a degree is not only a must but it becomes part of their life from sunrise to sunset. They deviate losing touch with reality, friends, and everyday activities. It is as if your life only hasone signal meaning that is, your college degree.College requires so many sacrifices because you have to have time to study for exams and getting your homework done. Not having a college degree doesnt mean that someone wont become successful. There have been a lot of tidy sum in this world that become very successful without a degree. For example the CEO of Coca cola, Walt Disney, Steve Jobs, and many more. A degree does not make you the richest someone in the world. There are many roads for an education rather than just attending college for a degree. Many people succeed without college degrees.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Week Dqs

More specifically a attraction gouge Influence employee motivation, development of employees knowledge and skills, sh bed beliefs and values, organizational structure, programs, systems, and the placement and use of imaginativenesss to endure objectives (Yuk, 2010). An organizations success hinders on the charabancs, and how they interact with the employees. If a leader/manager rumpnot motivate the employees to achieve the goals set out then that means that the organization as a whole is not meeting the goals. I have worked for organizations where the managers did not have the skills to lead and it showed through the stores performance.But yet when I transferred to a different store, the managers there were more focused, had wonderful leadership skills, and outstanding communication skills and the store was 1 in the district for sales, production, and overhead reduction. Not only had that but the store had the lowest disturbance rate in the trig-state area. I contribute this to the circumspection staff and their Influence over their employees. summons Yuk, G. A. (2010). Leadership In organizations (7th deed. ). Upper saddle River, NJ Pearson learner Hall. 2. What Is a significant employee behavior Issue managers confront?According to organizational behavior theories, how should It be addressed? Organizations strive to promote positive, healthy working purlieu for their employees and customers. However, managers are confronted with behaviors in which this concept can be extremely challenging. Behaviors that do not follow organizational policy or norms can be determine as deviant workplace behaviors (Robbins Judge. 2011 Examples of deviant workplace behaviors are such swearing, pushing chairs, yelling, or even physical aggression. Behaviors such as this can set aside team cohesion, productivity, or financial well be of an organization.According to organizational behavior theories, noxious conduct such as deviant workplace behavior must be addressed . The manager is not only responsible for confronting these behaviors but is also charged with investigating the source of the discontent (Robbins Judge, 2011). Managers need to be cognizant of employee stress levels, throw in appropriately, and enforce a zero-tolerance for lateral violence (Stack, 2003). Battling deviant workplace behaviors Is daring for even the best manager to tackle. However, managers will need to evaluate employee workloads and ensure duties are assigned 1 OFF managers must intervene at once.Not investigating the origin cause for the poor actions will not bring resolution that is needed. Mangers can also encourage vacations, De-stressing classes, as well as encouraging employees to seek employee assistance programs (Stack, 2003). References Robbins, S. P. , Judge, T. A. (2011). Organizational behavior (14th deed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ Pearson/Prentice Hall. Stack, L. (2003, October). Employees Behaving Badly-How managers can recognize and combat employee desk rage. HER Magazine, 48(10), 111-116. 1 . What is the difference between managers and leaders?Is it possible to be an effective manager but not an effective leader? Provide examples. Managers want to she-bop things done and have their subordinates perform better, compared to leaders who want to know what things mean to others, and how to get their followers to agree about what the close important things are that need to be done (Yuk,2010). I do believe that it is possible to be an effective manager while not being an effective leader. For example a person can be great at delegating what tasks need to be done, and assigning those tasks to operate efficiently.But when it comes to a manager actually having the proper communication skills necessary to be an effective leader they can be lacking. With my first charge position I was more come to about getting everything done and getting it done quick to try and impress my bosses at district that I never really took the time to get my employees input about the tasks. I later found out that this was a big mistake, if I had taken the time and put in the extra effort to listen, and ask for their opinions I would have known that it would have been easier to do the tasks in a different order.A few of my employees had been employed at the store for almost 10 years, so they knew the shortcuts to get the store re-sets done easier and quicker. I think that to be a truly great manager you also have to be a leader. But it is possible to be an effective manager but not an effective leader, you Just wont be a great one. Reference Yuk, G. (2010). Leadership in organizations (7th deed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ Pearson Education. 2. According to Robbins and Judge (201 1), a leader must acknowledge three primary roles as a manager.What are these management roles, and how do they affect the purpose, positions, and skills requisite by management? Provide an example from a current or past work bang that conveys these manageme nt roles. Reference Saddle River, NJ Pearson Education. According to Robbins and Judge (201 1), a leader must acknowledge three primary current or past work experience that conveys these management roles. * Interpersonal roles * Informational * Decisional roles The purpose of the interpersonal role is to act as a figurehead, leader, and liaison (p. ) one that others look-up to for a sense of accomplishment or steering as well as a networking relationship, all of which build trust. The interpersonal role will put management in the forefront of the organization and community. Skills prayd will include the ability to clearly communicate to others as well as effectively direct and dead subordinates. The informational role as described by Robbins & Judge (2011) carries out three objectives to collect and distribute market information to represent the organization.The purpose of this role is to realize customer trends and send that information patronize to those who can make the change s needed to remain competitive. Again, management will need to network effectively with others to better understand changing market trends. The skills will require management to understand what tools will be needed that would deliver the best source of information. The decisional role consists of four elements the entrepreneur role the assistance handler the resource locator and the negotiator (p. 7).The entrepreneur role will allow management to use the market information that he or she has gathered to better reorient the organization to remain competitive. The disturbance handler puts management at the forefront of critical issues that may hinder performance. The resource locator will require management to understand what sources will be needed, including human capital, to accomplish the organizations goals. The negotiator role will require management to pull all of these resources together and to collaborate a way to be successful.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

My most prized possesion Essay

My initial thought was how could i possibly narrow that down to rightful(prenominal) one single item? After fifteen minutes of staring at a blank piece of paper trying to figure fall out what exactly i cherish most in my life, it hit me. The one thing in my life that plays the biggest and most important role in my universal story is my health. When people hear the word possession they automatically think of an object belonging to one. However, it is often forgotten that a possession isnt ceaselessly near a physical material but can be anything from a trait to a physical attribute. From a very young eon you are taught the umpteen steps needed to live a healthy lifestyle and of importtain ones health. These steps have become split of our day-after-day routine that many people often begin to take their health for granted as good health is viewed as something thats just expected in life, particularly amongst young people. It often doesnt cross the minds of people when theyre tr ying to undergo a busy schedule effortless however, its our health that keeps us going, its our health that enables us to live our lives everyday without having to worry about dropping dead in the middle of the street or having a heart attack whilst doing the groceries. Good health is the real jewel of life.My mother always taught me to eat well. We would often reach a negotiation whereby if I ate all of my vegetables at dinner, In return, I would be allowed out on the green to play. My mother understood the importance of healthy eating whereas I always thought she was forcing me to eat green balls of slime to be malicious. My father enrolled me into my local soccer club and I could never grasp why. However, as the old age flew by and I began to grow as a child, I learnt that this was all for my own good as he just wanted whats exceed for me which was maintaining a good physical health. As I matured and became more aware of the realness a turn me, I saw that health is apart of m y everyday routine and although I may not have understood it at the time, I can see that the role it plays is more vital than anything else in the world. collectible to the sheer egotistical and self-centred actions of many people around the world today, people are growing up thinking that money can shape everything.To keep good health, no money is needed. This fact is often abandoned due to common phrase often used- money makes the world go round. Even if you have all the money in the world, health leave always swoop in and take first place when it comes to importance. Steve Jobs was one of the worlds richest men, owning one of thebiggest companies in the world and having a total net worth of about 7 billion dollars. However, that did not stop his cancer from heartlessly taking away his life, at the young age of 56. Despite owning a tremendous portion of the worlds money, he could not buy health, proving that riches is irrelevant if you dont have the air in your lungs.If health is lost, everything is lost such as the capacity to work which can lead to many catastrophes such as poverty and misery. if good health was abolished, we would simply fade away along with the rest of the world. To conclude, my health will always be my main focus on life- mentally and physically. I believe that if i dont live life with a good mental outlook, i will achieve nothing.I perfectly agree with the maxim health is wealth. Unfortunately, very few care about this wealth. People spend sleepless age and nights, running after material wealth forgetting that the first step to acquire material wealth is to have good health.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Employee Empowerment Essay

Employee empowerment is one of the management practices in todays corporate business surround. It is a habit of allocating ideas, profit, recognition and control the be with employees. According to the management theory of Kanter, mentioned by Rodriguez (2011) that by communion power it will not only improve personal job satisfaction but excessively advantage the organization as a whole. The involvement and participation will allow them to gain great job satisfaction and more committed to the organizations goal (Lashley 2001). However, this management style excessively has around drawbacks like all leadership styles. One of the most important benefits of employee empowerment is the improvement in crosswayivity in an organization. Employees who argon charge are more apply to the organization because of their active engagement. They are more responsible for the outcomes of their action, and better able to achieve job demands in an effective manner. In fact, commitment, acco untability and the intention of sateling job demands are the qualities of an empowered employee (Kelleher, 2013). A satisfied employee will do their job successfully and besides meet their personal target. Furthermore their responsible actions will make the success for the friendship and fulfil mutual commitment.That means by meeting personal targets the organisations economy is alike boosted (Watson 2012). Engaged employees are dedicated to their job and pull in enthusiasm about(predicate) their responsibility that means they love to do their duty. Another benefit is that empowered employee dejection perk up a great contribution to reduce the costs for an organization.For example, when employees engage the business office to deal with customer complaints when they occur, and have the freedom to suggest a solution to the difficulty, that makes the employees self sufficient. This is high-octane as it has less reliance on higher management approval (The Saylor foundation 2 014). As a result, the organization encourages the employees to think creatively and critically which will allow them to communicate with their colleagues regarding the related paradoxs and share innovative ideas, so it can cuts the cost of training and any overhead costs in some cases (Lashley 2001). For instance, a problem which can be easily solved by an empowered employee could in other circumstances abolish up in court or compensation which could cost a lot of money for the company.The efficient use of resources by the employees can also reduce the cost. Even so, the lay down environment has a operative effect on how effective the employees can use the resources (Lashley 2001). Thethree primary(prenominal) desired aspects of work environment are, namely undisturbed environment, easy accessibility and sufficient appropriate equipment to perform their job. For instance, comparing to construction work where people need protective uniforms for their job, in business on that p oint must have a electronic computer network with Wi-Fi. These will make the employees independent and maximize the productivity of the company. The employees fell valuable and important, so there will be long-term employees who are loyal to the organization and this will reducing employee turnover costs (Owen.et.al.2014). However, the three main areas of concern regarding employee empowerment are as follow. Firstly, in a time of ever-changing ownership or uncertain situation, it could make the decision making process lengthy (HEATHFIELD 2014) because the rules and regulations can be incompatible from previous as either the new management is coming or the condition is runny where company might close down.Secondly, it could drive to disorder because the empowered employees have different solutions (HEATHFIELD 2014) for the same problem which may breach conduct according to the company policy. Thirdly, by empowering the employees the private information of the company suit unprote cted, this could damage the company if exposes because of the personal greed of the employees (HAMLIN 2014) while the information might be valuable to the competitors or it can create embarrassment. Though there are some disadvantages of employee empowerment, the increasing productivity and cost potence can make this management style desirable for employees to work and mangers to control. Throughout the following paragraph the roles of mangers in past and present , will be discussed and how modern managers can apply these roles to find a assertable solution for the problems faced by empowered environment. The role of the manager varies from company to company and time to time. However, the main responsibilities are planning, organising, delegating, observing and evaluating (MURRAY 2014). In the past, the traditional style of management was disciplined and strictly following a chain of command.It was driven by the power of order(Gollakota,2014),but it has been developed over time.T he modern managers support empowerment because it develops product and services more effectively, increases the satisfaction with colleagues, and overall it leads to create a unique place of work with advanced(a) performance capabilities. SOURCE By applying these management skills modern managers can be able to make solutions for theproblems of employee empowerment.Fon instance, in a case where the ownership due to change and the situation is unstable,the modern managers can assure the employees about management support to recover the difficulties.Also,the managers should be able to make an adjustment(Liraz,2014) about the changes so that the employees are everlastingly up to date with the situation and sufficient training has been given to manage the situation with confidence. In an empowered environment where the solutions from employees varies from customers to customers, a modern manager can be more communicative about share the innovative thoughts and ideas by organizing fre quent staff meetings with feedback.As a result, the employees are known from their colleagues about all the workable solutions to complains made by customers and also customers will have a choice.Also, there will not have any misunderstanding between the customers about the received solution from a company.Furthermore,though it seems impossible to protect a companys secret information modern managers can use their initiatives with the help of technology.Such as, a special type of software called content management allows the employees to access the data according to the length of employment, to add on, DLP-Data want Prevention can be used for inspecting sensitive outgoing data in a companys network (FORD 2011). Overall, due to the protection of data managers can closely monitor the activities of the empowered employees and also can make a law which will not allow to bring the personal technologies at work so it could ensure the safety of companys secret information.There are diff erent ways of developing the employees. For example, Managers have to be passionate about their job (SCHAPPEL 2013) because if they do not utter any attention or spirit, they will not be able to motivate the employees to contribute to the targets. Also, managers should unceasingly have appreciation for the employees so the employees feel they are valuable to the company.HEATHFIELD (2014) states, as an employee they wish respect and favour to support their thinking. So managers should give recognition for an achievement, but if employees are likely to follow a persecute direction managers can resolve that with a positive attitude. Furthermore, HEATHFIELD(2014) says, managers could involve the employees in the decision making.For example, promotions of new product, or improvement meetings, which will make them feel more involved than in their usual job responsibility.Furthermore Schappel (2013) emphasise on how themangers can make the work place comfortable for the employees to w ork .After allocating the task managers can conserve the progress, also give guidance and support if needed.The managers can share the target and forecast with the employees. As they could have a better idea not only to support and share the target but also a possible solution for overcoming any difficulties that could occur. Moreover, by sharing thoughts they can make it achievable as a team (HEATHFIELD 2014) (SCHAPPEL 2013). To empower the employees is not an easy task because it needs a atmosphere of picture and cooperation from the management of a company ( Quast,2011).Also management should have the practice of welcoming any failure from the employees so that the lessons will help others in future development. Employee empowerment is considered to be the best way to adjudge customers satisfied, because the employees have the authority to take a possible solution for a situation and their main priority to keep the customer satisfied 11 (Quast,2011).Though this management styl e can be time consuming for some organizations because of the traditional frame of management and also the dependence on managers for every instruction,however, the creativity, teamwork,communication and innovative ideas from an empowered employee can help to achieve success and challenges from competitors. No referencein conclusionReference list1.RODRIGUEZ, P,F. , 2011. Management Theory of Rosabeth Moss Kanter intelligence Kanters Change model to benefit your company online. viewed 21 April 2011. purchasable from http//www.business.com/management/management-theory-of-rosabeth-moss-kanter/ 2.LASHLEY,C.2004. mandate.Burlington.Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann 3.Kelleher.B.2013.Whos sinking feeling your boat? Online video.Viewed 24 Aug 2014. Available from https//www.youtube.com/watch?v=y4nwoZ02AJM 4Watson.K.,2012.How Employee Engagement Can Boost Profitsonline.viewed 23 march 2012.Available from http//www.yoursmallbusiness.co.uk/how-employee-engagement-can-boost-profits.html 5. THE SAYLOR FOUNDATION.,The Benefits Of Empowering Employees online.Available from http//www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/BUS208-5.2-The-Benefits-of-Empowering-Employees-FINAL.pdf 6 Owen E and Richason IV.2014. What Are the Benefits of Practicing Employee Involvement & authorization?online. Available from http//smallbusiness.chron.com/benefits-practicing-employee-involvement-empowerment-1842.html 7.Kristen Hamlin,2014.The Pro & Cons of Empowerment in an brass.Available from http//smallbusiness.chron.com/pro-cons-empowerment-organization-13397.html 8. MURRY,A.2014. What do Managers do? (The wall street journal)online(Europe Edition)Available from http//guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/what-do-managers-do/ 9. Gollakota.S.2014.Traditional Vs Modern Management Matrix Organization online.Available from http//www.citehr.com/200930-traditional-vs-modern-management-matrix-organization.html 10. Liraz.M.2014. How To Develop A Strategic Plan.Online.Available from http//www.bizmove.com/general/m6c.htm 11.Ford,J.,2011.The Leaky Corporation.Online.Viewed 24th February.Available from http//www.economist.com/node/18226961 12. Susan M. Heathfield(2014). Top 10 Principles of Employee Empowermentonline.Available from http//humanresources.about.com/od/managementandleadership/tp/empowerment.htm 13. SCHAPPEL.C.2013. 7 actions that create more effective managers.Online.Accessed 24 December 2013. Available from http//smartblogs.com/leadership/2013/12/24/7-actions-that-create-more-effective-managers/ 14.QUAST,L.2011. 6 Ways To Empower Others To Succeed. Online. Accessed28 February 2011 .Available from http//www.forbes.com/sites/lisaquast/2011/02/28/6-ways-to-empower-others-to-succeed/AUOBLC. 2012. Overview of Kanters Theory on Structural Empowerment online.Available from http//structuralempowerment.weebly.com/kanters-theory.html FORD, J. 2011. The Leaky Corporation. Online. Viewed 24th February. Available from http//www.economist.com/node/18226961 KE LLEHER, B. 2013. Whos sinking your boat? Online video.Viewed 24 Aug 2014. Available from https//www.youtube.com/watch?v=y4nwoZ02AJM LASHLEY, C . 2004. Empowerment.Burlington.Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann HEATHFIELD, S, M. 2014. Top 10 Principles of Employee Empowerment online. Available from http//humanresources.about.com/od/managementandleadership/tp/empowerment.htm

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Explain Why It is Difficult to Measure Unemployment Essay

Measuring unemployment accurately is do difficult because of imperfect knowledge. Not all instances of unemployment atomic number 18 recorded, and some records of unemployment may not be accurate. Because the dismissed are eligible for benefits, some individuals may live, but not disclose it, and learn benefit. Conversely, many laid-off may not bother to inform the authorities, and this unemployment goes unrecorded.The Claimant attend records those claiming unemployment benefit (Job Seekers Allowance, or JSA) and can institute they are actively looking for work. It excludes housewives and those on training schemes. The Claimant Count may not reflect the true train of unemployment in the UK economy, given that not all the unemployed will bother to claim, and some are deterred because they cannot prove they are looking for work. This is especially true of part-time employees who are much less likely to chronicle as unemployed compared with full-time workers.While some individ uals may fraudulently claim, it is generally recognised that the Claimant Count under-estimates actual unemployment levels. The labour force survey is undertaken by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and is a more(prenominal) direct assessment of unemployment, rather than those who claim benefit. It is based on an interview of a sample of 60,000 households (approximately 120,000 people) and tries to sum of money unemployment as a whole, rather than those simply claiming benefits.To be considered as being unemployed individuals must realize been out of work for 4 weeks. Be able to start work in the next 2 weeks, so they must be readily available for work. Workers only need to be available for work for one hour per week, so part-time unemployment is included in the measurement, though these workers are unlikely to claim unemployment benefit. This tends to make ILO unemployment much higher than the Claimant Count.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Descartes †First Meditation Essay

In the First speculation, Descartes presents his philosophical project, and he claims that, in order to complete this project, he needs to put into questions the accuracy of all his beliefs. Descartes shows that we can doubt of the truth of all our beliefs by two main arguments, the Dream blood and the Evil Genius argument. In the Dream Argument, Descartes discusses the senses and how it can deceive. Descartes then mentions that when he is dreaming he can also sense real objects, or at least feels he can, causing him not be equal to(p) to distinguish between be asleep and being awake.This is shown in the advert from the First Meditation, I see so plainly that there argon no definitive signs by which to distinguish being awake from being asleep. As a result, I am becoming quite dizzy, and this dizziness well convinces me that I am asleep (19, Mediation One). Descartes also discusses the possibility of the universal dream, mentioning that his whole life could in fact be a drea m with no actual world that you ar awake.Descartes mentions that dream images are images that we already experience in our waking life, they are images that we already come of. The images dont needfully have to be something we have seen before because it can be parts of real things we already experience that create an different image we have not yet seen or experienced. The dream argument that Descartes represents interprets the pith that the senses are not always reliable, and we can easily be fooled by them, therefrom, we should not rely on our senses to base all of our beliefs on.Now moving on to Descartes second argument, the Evil Genius argument, it implies that everything we think we know is in fact not true and we cannot rely on our senses. In The First Meditation, Descartes presents that God is advantageously, therefore he would not fool the beings he creates into believing false things. If someone were to believe in this tracing then he would know that he cant be foo led by anything. This is shown in Descartes quote exactly perhaps God has not willed that I be deceived in this way, for he is said to be supremely good.Nonetheless, if it were repugnant to his goodness to have created me such that I be deceived all the time, it would also be foreign to that same goodness to permit me to be deceived even occasionally (21 Meditation One). On the other hand, Descartes mentions that there are some people who believe there is no God, if this is the point of view to be caren then there would be a very big likelihood in us being deceived. The flat coat for this theory is due to the argument Descartes presents that if there is no good our senses would not be perfect since it would not have been created by a perfect being, such as God.This is shown in Descartes quote, But because being deceived and being mistaken appear to be a certain imperfectibleion, the less powerful they take the author of my origin to be, the more probable it will be that I am s o imperfect that I am always deceived (21 Mediation One). In the end of the First Meditation, Descartes sees it as impossible to wear from thinking about these theories, he then tries to believe that his opinions are not true. Descartes does this for the close to be able to keep thinking as normal without disruptions.Descartes mentions this in his quote, Hence, it seems to me I would do well to deceive myself by turning my will in completely the opposite directions and pretend for a time that these opinions are all in all false and imaginary (22 Meditation One). Descartes then concludes that an evil genius has set out to deceive him so everything he thinks he knows is not true, I will not suppose a supremely good God, the source of truth, but rather an evil genius, supremely powerful and clever, who has directed his entire effort at deceiving me (22 Mediation One).With Descartes doubting all his beliefs he makes sure that he is not led to believe in what is not real by the so c alled evil genius he mentions in the First Meditation. In regards to the question, does Descartes appear to be a sceptic? I would have to claim no, the reason I say this is although Descartes does appear to be a sceptic in all his arguments, he demonstrates theories to all his doubts. When Descartes represents a reason for his doubt this cannot be viewed a scepticism anymore as scepticism as defined is the philosophical position according to which knowledge is impossible.Descartes represents knowledge on each topic he doubts, as to wherefore it should be doubted and for what reasons. Descartes does not constantly doubt everything for no reason, a sceptic doubts everything around them for no reason whatsoever. To prove this argument I suggested we can look at the First Meditation when Descartes denies the thought that he might be insane, which is shown in his quote, Unless perhaps I were to liken myself to the insane, but such people are mad, and I would appear no less mad, were I to take their behavior as an example for myself (19 Meditation One).In this quote it proves that all the doubts Descartes is making in the First Meditation are logical, and provide reason. Descartes is not just doubting for the sake of doubting, but for logic that causes this doubt he is experiencing. This concludes that Descartes is not a sceptic, and his arguments in fact to continue to grow, while maintaining logical reason behind them.

Friday, May 17, 2019

Respiratory System Study Guide

Respiratory System Study guide Answer the following, submit through the assignments link as an msword document. 1. What percent of air is oxygen? 21% of air is oxygen. 2. What is the entire process of gas exchange between atmosphere and body cells called It is called respiration. 3. What is the waste product of cells? Carbon dioxide is the waste product of cells. 4. What organs are fit(p) in the upper respiratory pathway? The organs that are located in the upper respiratory tract are the nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx. 5.What organs are in the lower respiratory tract? The organs that are located in the lower respiratory tract are the larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs. 6. What is the character of the nasal cavity? The nasal cavity is where the internal hairs begin to filter air. The primary function is to organise air to the pharynx, where mucous lining filters and moistens air. 7. What does mucous do? The mucous entraps dust and other small particle s that participate with air. As cilia move, it push mucous with dust towards pharynx, where it is swallowed and digested by stomach. . What is the function of the larynx? The function of larynx is to read air in and out of trachea, prevent foreign objects from entering trachea. Also houses the vocal cords. 9. Which lung is larger, the right or the left? The right lung is larger than the left lung. 10. What is laryngitis? Laryngitis is horseness or loss of voice, mucous membrane becomes inflames, can hasten obstruction of airway. 11. What is a bronchoscopy? Bronchoscoy is produce used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree. 12.The paranasal sinuses are resonant house that affect the quality of voice and function to _________. Reduce the weight of skull and resonant chambers that affect quality of voice. 13. What is found within the trachea that prevents it from collapsing and blocking the airway? Within the trachea are 20 C shaped pieces of cartilage that prevent it f rom collapsing and blocking the airway. 14. What is inspiration? Occurs when pressure inside alveoli decreases and atmospherical pressure is greater. 15. What is tidal volume? The amount of air that enters or leaves the lung.