Saturday, August 31, 2019
Introduction The Brand Techniques simulation is based on cosmetic companyÃ¢â¬â¢s building of a new brand. CaÃ¢â¬â¢Shara is a United States based cosmetic manufacturer and marketer of skin care, hair care, and make-up. CaÃ¢â¬â¢Shara has an established brand presence and known for quality products. The recent consumer interest in natural products has made CaÃ¢â¬â¢Shara management decide to cater to this segment of the cosmetic market. The company has decided on a 5,000 year old health care system from India called Ayurveda. As the newly appointed Brand Manager, I will be responsible for building the new brand Three executives gave their expert advice in the decision making process throughout the simulation exercise. They were Tina Trotter, Head of Sales; Monique Knight, Brand Consultant; and Jim Reding, Country Manager. Perceptual Map The simulation give the psychographic profile of the Ayurvedic customer as Caucasian to African American, age 18-35 with an income of $50,000 or higher. The consumer survey shows the customer base largely holistic and classy with a combined 55%. Meaning they like the natural base products and exclusive products. The principles of Ayurveda are explained as the Three Doshas. This is important to understand because it shows the three skin types the new brand will target. This will be dry, oily, and irritable. The brand position choice made was high on both holistic and classy and titled Enduring Secrets from the East. This was incorrect. The correct choice was high holistic and low classy. Correct title is Perfect balance, mind and body. The reason for the choice was because of the psychographic percentages only contained a slim difference in weighted value. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize this choice meant the brand would need to carve out a new niche instead of competing against another companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products. The choice made meant the perception of the product would be set as a lofty, unreachable goad ofÃ perfect in every way alleviating all concerns and possible disadvantages. Brand Name, Logo, & Slogan Two choices were made correctly using the focus group information. The brand name chosen was Natural Balance because it aligned with the brand positioning. Logo number 2 was chosen because of the market surveyÃ¢â¬â¢s information. The logos green color and curves match the preferences of the focus groups. The shape gives the feel of feminine soft. The slogan of A Return to Nature was chose, but was not the best choice as it was similar to a competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s slogan. This choice doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow the brand to stand alone and differentiate itself in the market. It could dilute the brands identity. According to Cron.com the choosing of a name, logo, and slogan are nearly as important as the products sold. Ã¢â¬Å"If you choose your name and logo well, they will stay in your customersÃ¢â¬â¢ minds and remind them of the value your company offers. In fact, a well-chosen name and logo can help you to stand out amount the competition. Your customers will instantly think of your memorable business name and logo whenever they are in the market for your products or services.Ã¢â¬ For this very reason, the slogan that is similar to another like product is a grave error. Brand Associations- The Final Look Now we are down to choosing the brand associations. Who will promote and what events or causes will be align our brand with? The focus groups chose Maria Switzer as the spokesperson. They also pointed to two functions of interest, Partner with GreenEco and providing grants to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s trust funds. These choices used $27,300 of the allotted $34,000. Total cost of these choices is $327,000 and under budget. It makes sense for a product that is built around natural ingredients to be associated with an environmental group like GreenEco. It also shows the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s long term commitment to the environment. The choice of providing grants to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s trust funds is a choice that gives back to the community in a broad spectrum. The customer base can see where they may see benefit locally for the dollars theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve spent. The choice of Maria Switzer was that of a strong, independent female with her own sense of style. The publicÃ¢â¬â¢s view of longevity is associated with this individualÃ¢â¬â¢s unique persona. Beyond the Simulation The simulation was good about applying the principles of brand positioning, but there are more ways to make your product stand out among similar brands. One additional aspect is to show ownership. The simulation had a spokesperson picked, but customers like to be able to identify an owner. This is true for large and small companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to stand out from the competition. Knowing the face behind the product is important to keeping the consumer engaged. Per the SBA, Ã¢â¬Å"Businesses really thrive when the energy of the owner is there.Ã¢â¬ A good example was Steve Jobs involvement with Microsoft. Small businesses can equally benefit from the consumer having a face behind the product or service. It lets people know the owner is involved and active with the business. Another way to have stood out was not only the shape of the container, but to have the container recyclable, biodegradable, or refillable would have been a good aspect to have. This would further appeal to the profile of being environmentally friendly and support the GreenEco cause the brand is supporting. The brand in the simulation, Ayurveda, immediately had a sense of well-being and soothing associated with the brand. Not only is it not irritating to the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s skin, but the environment too. The brand was immediately associated with everything Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Service vs. Tangible product Had the simulation used a service instead of a tangible product application there would have been no real difference. A brand is in the minds of the consumer. It is setting or understanding their perception of the product or service offered. Conclusion The simulation was an excellent tool in learning and applying the branding techniques. It was only after wrong decisions were made and explained, that I understood why they were incorrect. At that point they seem obviously wrong. Making sure to use the differences of a product or service is the key to finding a niche and making a product stand out among the masses. References Chron, retrieved March 9, 2014 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/choose-company-name-logo-2348.html SBA retrieved March 9, 2014 from http://www.sba.gov/community/blogs/10-tips-help-you-build-and-grow-stand-out-small-business-brand
Friday, August 30, 2019
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The report will firstly analyze the external audit of Processed Food & Food Service and Confectionery & Bakery industries, which consist of two parts Ã¢â¬â market analysis and customer analysis. From these two parts, the opportunities and threats of the suppliers in these industries, especially DKSH, will be outlined. In the market analysis, business environment, the market and competitors will be examined respectively.Particularly, the opportunities about the increase in demand or a good signal of industrial development will be explained in social factors, economic factors and industry part; these factors will give general information about Vietnam young population and their Western culture receptivity, which will easily increase the demand in such industry.On the other hand, legal factor will threaten DKSH due to the strict requirement in canned food industry that the firm needs to take caution in order to adapt to new regulation; while the economic factors onc e again strengthen the opportunity from social factors due to the increase in GDP growth and income. However, the inflation rate should also be considered because it could cause the inconstant demand and be difficult to forecast future demand in the future. The market part also gives some general information about the size based on the value of packaged food industry around US$12. billion in 2011 with the prediction of 4. 2% growth rate in next two years, which promises the development of these two clusters in the near future. Secondly, customer analysis is divided into two main features, which are current customers and potential customers. In current customer analysis, the report will give the information about each clusterÃ¢â¬â¢s market share of the top companies holding the highest percentage; Masan in sauce market, Acecook in instant noodles market, and Kinh Do in confectionery & bakery market.Then, more details information about these current customers will be examined in ter m of sales, their expectation such as building up deeper relationship with their multinational suppliers, and difficulty such as high input cost. After that, potential customer part is analyzed based on proposed potential customer list; this part contains some companies regard to Lien Hoa, Hieu Cau Den in processed food; and Huu Nghi and Hai Ha in bakery and confectionery. Especially, some reasons will be given based on the research and analysis about these companies in order to prove that they re ideally potential customers of DKSH. Thirdly, the internal audit is conducted to give the brief idea about the company; DKSH sales structures are activated in product and geographically based, and the strengths of the company about qualified staffed and good value added service are figured out in resources and marketing mix management part. From industry and customer analysis, the SWOT gives the summary of company strengths and weakness; and opportunities and threats in graph illustration form. Next, the marketing plan is proposed in order to give the best fit with the SWOT.The marketing objective that applied SMART approach will aim to increase the demand, brand awareness as well as the way to approach to potential customers with the specific point of time which is from 1st October 2012 to 1st April 2013. Then, the implementation plans relied on marketing mix, including direct marketing, personal selling and sale promotion will be planned specifically. To give more visual prospect about the marketing plan, the marketing program gives detail schedule as an action plan; and finally the performance evaluation will give some idea about how to evaluate the success of this marketing plan.Contents I. Introduction5 II. External Audit6 A. Market Analysis6 1. Business Environment6 2. The Market8 3. Competitors10 B. Customer Analysis11 1. General Information11 2. Current Customers13 3. Potential Customers17 III. Internal Audit23 A. Company Analysis23 1. Sales23 2. Management o f marketing mix23 3. Resources23 IV. SWOT25 A. Strengths25 B. Opportunities25 V. Marketing Objectives26 VI. Implementation Plans26 VII. Marketing Program27 A. Direct Marketing27 1. Telephone Marketing27 2. Email Marketing27 B. Personal Selling29 C.Sales Promotion29 D. Action Plan29 VIII. Performance Evaluation31 IX. Conclusion32 X. Appendix33 A. Potential Customer List33 B. Mapping Itinerary37 1. Southern37 2. Northern40 XI. Reference41 * Introduction DKSH is one of leading companies in market expansion services that has been established in 1865 and exist for 150 years in Asia. Thus, Ã¢â¬Å"Think Asia, Think DKSHÃ¢â¬ is recognized as company's slogan and that could tell how successful DKSH is in Asia. With a strong financial performance that has increased rapidly from 2002 to 2011 that exceed 8. % in net sales, DKSH becomes a strongest successful market leader recently. Obviously, its objectives are to help firms to grow their business in new and existing market by supplying know ledge, advice, relationship to reach each individual's goal, expand company's revenue opportunities and increase their market shares by making sure that their client's products are always visible on the shelves at all times. DKSH's business units are divided into 4 main business lines: Food ; Beverage (F;B), Personal Care, Pharmaceuticals and Specialty Chemicals.In fact, this report is going to analyze on 2 small clusters: Confectionary ; Bakery, and Processed Food which included in F;B industry in order to help DKSH to remain on the existing market and expand their business to the new market. To be more specific, integrated marketing communication tools that are direct marketing (telephone ; email), personal selling and sales promotion (trade promotion) will be applied to support push strategy in order to approach to potential customers. External Audit Market Analysis Business EnvironmentSocial Factors According to General Statistics Office (2010), Vietnam population in 2010 is aro und 88 millions with 51. 9% of this figure is younger than 30. Hence, it could become an opportunity for confectionery and processed food markets in increasing demand for consuming these kinds of product due to the receptivity of young population as well as the influence of Western culture. For this reason, suppliers of ingredients for these products can potentially enhance the number of customers as well as their sales in Vietnam market.Legal Factor According to Civil Law Network (2010), the ministry has implemented a new regulation for food safety, and requires all enterprises in food industry to strictly comply with the law of standard safety food. To be more specific, the Government encourages food manufactures in using high quality ingredients and adding more nutrition in their products. Moreover, they also require the manufactures in focusing on managing the supply of ingredients from upstream.Consequently, it could be the threat for food manufacturing companies to manage and have a specialized knowledge about supplied ingredients and their suppliers are expected to invest more in innovating their products in order to meet the regulation and more persuasive for the manufacturing firms to use their products. Furthermore, the regulation for environmental friendly packaging in food service also stricter (Civil Law Network 2010). Thus, it requires food service suppliers to put more effort in investing new or innovating current kinds of packaging that could adapt to environment issues.Economic factors In 2010, VietnamÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP growth rate was 5. 83% (tradingeconomics. com 2012), hence the monthly average income per capital had increased to 39. 4% compared to 2008 and was estimated to be 1,387 thousand VND. As the result, this increase in income have gradually shifted Vietnamese consumers in premium segments such as sweet, ice cream or cakes and consumers also have higher requirements of diverse tastes, food quality, and nutrition for package food and also bakery (Vietnam package food, 2011).It is the good opportunities for supplying companies to catch up with these trends by developing current and new ingredients in respond with these market trends. However, the significant influence of the inflation rate cannot be denied. Based on tradingeconomics. com data, the Vietnam inflation rate in the third quarter in 2011 was around 22. 42% whish was the highest rate in Asia (bbc. co. uk). Hence, the demand in food market had declined in this period; therefore, manufactures can be threatened in forecasting future demand due to some unpredictable economic factors.Consequently, the suppliers are also affected by that because it could be difficult for them to rank the potentiality of their customers in near future. The Market In the report Ã¢â¬Å"Newzealand Trade;EnterpriseÃ¢â¬ (2011), the author states that the value of packaged food industry in Vietnam was approximatelyUS$13. 3 billion in 2011 with the average growth rate at 4. 2% in the next two year. In addition, based on General Statistics Office website (2011), the value of confectionery sales is predicted to increase to US$ 471. 6 million at the end of 2012 and this figure is going to increase more than 10% each year for the next four years. These numbers indicate that there is a very highly potential demand for confectionery and processed food industry. * Competitors Connell Brothers, DKSH and Brenntag have been ranked as top 10 leading chemical distributors in Asia in 2011. Specifically, they all operate in Vietnam and engage in many types of industries such as food ; beverage, personal care, specialty chemicals, and pharmaceutical industry.As shown in the graph, it can be seen that DKSH has much less sales as well as power compared to Connell Brothers in the global market in 2011. At the meantime, the sale of DKSH and Brenntag is slightly different. Therefore, DKSH is required to put more efforts to gain its market share globally in order to build further di stance with Brenntag and shorten the distance with Connell Brothers. Customer Analysis General Information First of all, the paper is going to show some figures related to market share of some leading firms in Vietnam (2011) for two industries: processed food and bakery.For processed food market, market share of sauce and instant noodles have been displayed; while in bakery industry, confectionery and biscuit market have been demonstrated. Market Share- Processed Food (Source: Euro Monitor International) Sauce market For the diagram above, it shows that Masan owns comparatively larger market share than any other firms in such market. But since the portion of Ã¢â¬Å"othersÃ¢â¬ still has 25% of the marker share, it is believed that some potential customers in this category can be found. Instant noodles marketThe major key player in this industry is Acecook, with 51% of market share while the other firms are holding less than 20% respectively. The report selects Masan food as an ins tance to explore knowledge under current customer analysis. Market Share Ã¢â¬â Bakery (Source: Euro Monitor International) Confectionery market Confectionery market is diverse, with many firms hold similar portion of shares. Among them, Kinh Do takes the 1st place in the market, follow by Huu Nghi and Hai Ha. The 2nd and 3rd key players in the market can be the potential customers for DKSH.Further information related will be given below in Ã¢â¬Å"Potential customerÃ¢â¬ . Biscuit market There are mainly two key players in the market, Kinh Do and Kraft Food, while each of other firms retain from 4~11% as their market share in the biscuit industry. Due to Kinh Do has an outstanding performance on the market share, the report will take it as a specimen in analyzing current customers. Current Customers There are many customers that DKSH is currently having connection with, including both local and foreign firms.The paper will choose one customer from each cluster, Masan Food and Kin h Do, to analysis the position of it through searching on background information, sales performance, and then raise opportunity and threat. Masan Food (Processed food) Mason Food is belonged to Masan Group, a firm that specialized on Techcombank financial services. After years of operation, Mason Food has become leading brand of processed food market in Vietnam, which has dominance on market share in some product categories. The product range includes fish sauce, soy sauce, instant noodles (74%, 78%, 14% of the market respectively) and other kinds of product.Sales Performance (Source: Business Monitor International ) Opportunity Despite Masan Group is established as a local enterprise, it recently decides to build a relationship of acquisition with Nuiphao Mining Joint Venture Company Ltd, becoming one of the largest private sector resources companies (Masan Group Investor Update n,d). Cooperating with local or foreign investment is an opportunity for firm to receive more capital to invest in its operations. Due to DKSH is a multinational firms already, the business is expected to be enrich by cooperating with local firms in other industries to expand the operation range.Threat As a processed food manufacturer, Masan Food faces a problem that sometimes the price for raw materials is fluctuating(Business Monitor International, 2012). For the earning benefit point of view, Masan Food should pass the costs from consumers, but that can threaten the chance of losing customers. To illustrate, the FMCG industry is a price sensitive environment that contains many brands at similar level. If one brandÃ¢â¬â¢s price is higher result from increasing costs to reflect its margin, customers can easily choose another brand because the switching cost is low.Volatile input costs can be a threat to the food manufacturer because the manufacturer needs to choose whether to burden itself or to pass on customers. Same story is applicable in DKSHÃ¢â¬â¢s case, if the input price h as a significant increase, DKSH has to decide whether to bear the costs or compensate from its customers; both decisions are having certain drawbacks needed to be considered. Sales Breakdown (Source: hsc company update) Kinh Do Corporation (Bakery and Confectionery) Kinh Do is a local brand that established in 1993, which is one of the largest food producers in Vietnam nowadays.The core business of the firm is food related products: confectionery (cakes, candies), beverage (water, juice) and dairy products. Kinh Do also involved in some other industries such as real estate and grocery retailing. The brand creates a good image that allows them to gain certain customer awareness and even awarded as top ten of VietnamÃ¢â¬â¢s best brands (Ha 2011). Sales Performance (Source: Business Monitor International) Opportunity As indicated before in the report, health awareness has raised from customers when they purchasing confectionery product.Consequently, higher level of quality is require d from food manufacturer in order to satisfy customers. As showed from annual report, Kinh Do provides best materials in manufacturing their products, aim to satisfy its customers in a better extent. Indeed, sellers should be responsible to meet the requirement when there is a concern about productÃ¢â¬â¢s specification such as Ã¢â¬Å"healthÃ¢â¬ mentioned above. Without doubt, they can gain more recognition if they can achieve the condition. DKSH is getting involved in this health concerned manufacturing process due to it is one of sellers of Kinh Do.If DKSH can attain the requirement, which it already does, it is expected that the buyers will be satisfied, and they are willing to create more opportunities to corporate with DKSH in the future. Threat Kinh Do depends largely on the domestic market but that makes the company fragile with the fluctuating customer demand (Business Monitor International, 2012). Actually, change in customersÃ¢â¬â¢ preference can affect organizationa l demand in both positive and negative ways, but here it seems more likely to be threat from the view of the Kinh Do.Because local buyers are the main sources of generating sales, if the number of them is not stable, firmÃ¢â¬â¢s overall performance will obviously be affected. Likewise, inquiry that DKSH received from food manufacturers is affected by customerÃ¢â¬â¢s demand. If the perception of buyers is low, sellers will gain lesser results from the declining demand, and vice versa. Being instable with the demand can be interpreted as the firm is actually dependent by the market trend. In this case, DKSH has no control over the changing demand; therefore it can be a threat. Sales Breakdown (Source: hsc company update)Potential Customers Apart from keeping relationship with current customers, exploring new customers is also important for a business. To give our more precise information, the report lists four potential customers from the two clusters, with background information, product range and reason why it is recommended as being Ã¢â¬Å"potentialÃ¢â¬ . Detail contacts of other potential customers can be founded in appendix. Lien Hoa (Processed food) Lien Hoa was established since 2008, by Thierrty Pham, an industrialist who has more than 15 yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ experience in the industry.The firm operates following European standard to ensure the quality of the products. As mentioned from the official website, Lien Hoa has signed exclusive contract with other brands such as Uni-President and Siam Brothers to be its business partners. Moreover, the products of Lien Hoa are widely distributed with supermarkets like Giant, Metro and Big C (Lien Hoa, 2011). Reason Although the brand is new compares to some other existing sellers in the market, it is expected to grow due to qualified and experienced methodology used by the firm.Furthermore, the brand has shown its ambition to boost the market by cooperating with well-known brands like Uni-President. Product rang e Hieu Cau Den Sausage (Processed food) It is a sub branch of Black Bride Food from Taiwan. The brand mainly offer traditional Taiwanese dished rice dumplings, meat floss, and some products commonly seen in Vietnam such as sausage and dumplings. The brand is also an importer for some food and beverage from Taiwan. Even though the brand is not as famous as other brands in the existing market, it is quite popular among the Taiwanese because the products fit their taste better.Reason Situation is slightly different compares to dealing with other brands in this case because the brand is not really concentrating on mass market but more likely on niche market, for Taiwanese currently. Becoming the supplier of it creates an opportunity to enhance brand awareness towards foreign consumers. Moreover, the location is in the same district with DKSH, and therefore it will be easier for DKSH to access. Product range Huu Nghi (Bakery and Confectionery) Huu Nghi is known as a noticeable confection ery brand in Vietnam since 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. is having more than 120,000 retailers throughout Vietnam. Similar to other brands in confectionery industry, the brand holds eligible qualifications as criteria to control fabric of the products. The business expands its relation across the nation to many countries: United States, Japan and Singapore. In addition, Huu Nghi also exploits the business to agricultural products such as pepper and corn (Huu Nghi, 2011). Reason The firm possesses proficient knowledge in trading with businesses across the country, thus, it is foreseeable that their experience can abound the business prospects.Also, as DKSH is a multi-national enterprise, Huu Nghi can understand the operation or regulations better result from their sophisticate. Product range Hai Ha (Bakery and Confectionery) Hai Ha Confectionery Joint Stock Company (HaiHaCo) has set up for more than 40 years and turns it status from public to private in 2003, aiming to provide qualified products to serve its customers. With advanced technology, Hai Ha can utilize its equipment plus the specialists to maximize its effort to engage in confectionery industry.Consumers of Hai Ha choose it as Ã¢â¬Å"Vietnam high-quality goodsÃ¢â¬ for continuous 13 years (Hai Ha, 2011). Reason Apart from dominant brands like Kinh Do, Bibica and Kraft, Hai Ha ranked as 4th in market share of both confectionery and biscuit sector in Vietnam. It can be a great opportunity if DKSH can work with them as a seller due to Hai HaÃ¢â¬â¢s high portion of sales caused by variety products. Product range Sales performance (Source: hsc company update) Internal Audit Company Analysis Sales DKSH has structured its sales force by product based, in which different sales team will be organized based on business lines.This method has created the strength for sales team as it can offer professional and skillful staffs with deep knowledge about their products. Face to face communication facilitates the interaction w ith customers by allowing them to question and negotiate directly, and thus lead to the opportunity to build long-term relationship. Additionally, to ensure the effectiveness of sale team, DKSH also divides its sales force based on geography, in which each sales team will be located and responsible for different areas across Vietnam.Management of marketing mix The annual report of DKSH claimed that DKSH will work with its customers to understand their needs, and then provide customized solutions to them. This is indicated that they are achieving cooperation relationship, which integrated into NPD (new product development) and new resolutions. Moreover, in order to strengthen their relationship, DKSH has provided customers the access to knowledge, advice, relationship, and logistics. At the mean time, DKSH ensures that the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ products will successfully grasp the right market.This is shown that there is a chance to build long-term collaborative relationships between the m. If this relationship remains well, then there will be potential to create long term alliances Ã¢â¬â to build specialist knowledge or strategic partnerships. Resources Due to the world wide sourcing network in more than 70 markets and the expertise in each cluster, DKSH is very confident in providing any needed ingredients for its customers. Moreover, for highly applicable purpose, research and analysis service can also help customers in creating and developing new or customized product ideas.Obviously, this is also one of DKSH strengths as it helps customers to be able to sustain in their market and differentiate their product offerings over competitors. DKSH has applied SalesForce. com as its own tool to manage sale teams. It allows each individual sales person to organize the new, potential and current customerÃ¢â¬â¢s information and the managers then can look at the working process of their inferiors. Moreover, DKSH can also translate all customer data to up date informat ion in timely manner. Another strength of DKSH is that it can efficiently manage its distribution channel.To allocate the channel tasks, the firm needs to achieve four main factors regarding reduce complexity, increase value, transaction efficiency and service quality. DKSH has industry expertise and offer Ã¢â¬Å"comprehensive Market Expansion ServicesÃ¢â¬ ; therefore the firm can help its customers to reduce the number of separate exchange that they need to take place in order to collect different ingredients that are needed for their production. The firm does not only provide materials to manufactures but it also provides the concepts and formulations that go with these materials.For this reason, understanding what customers expect is one of the necessary key that takes part in DKSHÃ¢â¬â¢s success; therefore value is added in each process. Moreover, DKSH offers the whole supply chain management; hence its customers can be beneficial in getting lower operational costs and also in increasing the value. Non-stop in innovating the new sources or materials to meeting customerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs for their own application or market trend is one of the advantage that illustrates for DKSHÃ¢â¬â¢s good service quality.Furthermore, the organization also have good after sales services such as monitoring of technical staff at customer site, order processing and warranty timely delivery. SWOT Strengths DKSH recruits experienced staff and professions in the field, the prominent knowledge level can be a base for providing stronger technical support. Instead of only supplying for ingredients, DKSH offers formulation description discussion with customers to understand them better for value-added services. With this tradition, DKSH can set up a long term relationship with its customers. DKSH offers Ã¢â¬Å"comprehensive market expansion serviceÃ¢â¬ .This benefits customers by reducing the number of exchanging points to go through. Consequently, operating and transaction cost s can be lessen. Opportunities Purchasing power of customers in Vietnam is enhanced caused by an increase in GDP; they have better earning to make purchase and thus greater demand of luxury food items can results. It is expected that lifestyle of young population in Vietnam will differ from Generation X, preferring more ready meal like confectionery products and processed food. Hence, a growth in demand is foreseeable. Marketing Objectives Objectives of the marketing plan will be outlined based on SMART approach.Firstly, the new potential customer list which does not include in DKSHÃ¢â¬â¢s current customer list helps DKSH to expand its customer database in its internal network regard to salesforce. com. Secondly, the direct marketing such as telephone and email marketing plan will be proposed from 1st October 2012 to 8th March 2013 in order to approach the potential customer list step by step and enhance the brand awareness in both current and potential customers. It will be able to achieve 40% of number of potential customers who are willing to answer through phone call or email.Thirdly, personal selling plan is applied from 15th October 2012 to 31st October 2012 to achieve the remained number of potential customer from above step; hence the sales of the company is estimated to increase by 30%. This plan will be conducted according to the mapping itinerary which helps the sale team easily to visit customer based on the efficient action plan. Finally, sales promotion program is planned as the boom strategy in order to help DKSH easier to create the demand among potential customers that applied in direct marketing and personal selling plan.Implementation Plans The most appropriate B2B marketing communication strategy that should be used to approach to potential customers as well as make them become DKSHÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"currentÃ¢â¬ customers is push strategy. Specifically, direct marketing, personal selling, and trade promotions will be used by DKSH to make its potential customers aware of its products and create demands, as well as to maintain and strengthen relationships with the current customers. Marketing Program Direct Marketing Telephone Marketing Potential customersIn direct marketing, telephone marketing should be used to directly communicate with these potential customers; DKSH should come up with the calling schedule, which indicates the number of sales people and the number of manufacturers (potential customers) need to be contacted in each region in one day. To illustrate, there are around 60 potential customers founded by the research team; DKSH can assign its sales people to make the call to 10 manufacturers in one day. This means DKSH will reach all 60 manufacturers within 6 days.In order to save customersÃ¢â¬â¢ time and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s costs, the sales persons should not introduce too much about DKSHÃ¢â¬â¢s history and its achievements via telephone. Instead, they should go straight to the core information su ch as types of products or ingredients that the customer needs, the price, and what DKSH can do for them. Moreover, the good point of this strategy is that it offers two-way communication and thus allows customers to question directly. For this reason, it is very important for DKSH to assign skillful spoken sales people to this project. Current customersIn addition, it is also important to schedule the calls to current customers in order to inform them about DKSHÃ¢â¬â¢s new products or ingredients, promotions, as well as to remain relationships with them. To illustrate, DKSH now has totally 105 current customers for food ; bakery cluster; assume that it will call to 10 customers in 1 day, so it will finish calling to all 105 customers within 11 days. It is recommended that DKSH should make this calling schedule every six months; at the beginning of each month for the current customers in order to keep frequent contact with them to update their latest situation and their new demand s.Email Marketing Potential customers As mentioned above, telephone marketing is used for the purpose of reaching potential customers by going straight to the core issue and providing them the core information. Therefore, other general information such as companyÃ¢â¬â¢s background, history, achievements, number of skillful staff and techniques, and types of business lines will not be discussed in detail via telephone marketing. For this reason, it will be a good idea to email this information to DKSHÃ¢â¬â¢s potential customers so that they can have a clearer sight about DKSH.It is recommended that DKSH should email to the potential customers that it cannot successfully reach in telephone marketing for once a month to remind them and make them aware of DKSH products; it should do this at the beginning of each month. Current customers In telephone marketing, the sales people will inform the current customers about new products or ingredients, and the promotions. Then, in the email marketing, these sales people will email to the customers the related information in detail, such as the price table that indicates the price of each type of new product.Obviously, this tool is faster and incurs lower costs compared to other tools. Moreover, it tends to be more convenient to the customers compared to the telephone marketing. To illustrate, some contacted customers are so busy that they cannot listen too much what DKSH sales people want to tell them. In this case, email will be a better choice. As mentioned above, DKSH should make calling to the current customers every 6 months to frequently update their new demands.Simultaneously, DKSH should also try to come up with new products every 6 months to help its current customers to sustain in the competitive market as well as to retain them. Then, the sales people will email this related information in details to these customers; also do this for every 6 months, and at the beginning of each month. Personal Selling In pe rsonal selling, sales representatives of DKSH will be assigned face-to-face to these potential manufacturers in each region; these manufacturers (potential customers) are those that DKSH cannot catch in direct marketing.The number of sales representatives will be decided relying on the number of manufacturers in a particular region. To be more specific, DKSH can go to visit 4 manufacturers in 1 day; keeping doing this until it can catch up all of the potential customers that left in direct marketing. The main task of these representatives is to try to understand customersÃ¢â¬â¢ purchasing criteria as well as to provide brief information about DKSHÃ¢â¬â¢s main industries and products in order to increase the product awareness. Moreover, it is important to emphasize the benefits that DKSH can bring to them. Sales PromotionIn trade promotions, the telephone marketers and sales representatives should emphasize that DKSH will offer lower prices (5% discount) compared to the market pr ice to its potential customers for their first purchases; this means the more they purchase, the more discount they can get. Therefore, it will be the incentive for these customers, and this type of promotion will be applied to the potential manufacturers in all regions. Action Plan Task| Timeline| | 1st October Ã¢â¬â 31th December 2012| | W1| W2| W3| W4| W5| W6| W7| W8| W9| W10| W11| W12| Telephone Mkt| | | | | | | | | | | | |Email Mkt| | | | | | | | | | | | | Personal Selling| | | | | | | | | | | | | Sales Promotion| | | | | | | | | | | | | | Timeline| | 1st January Ã¢â¬â 1st April 2013| | W13| W14| W15| W16| W17| W18| W19| W20| W21| W22| W23| W24| Telephone Mkt| | | | | | | | | | | | | Email Mkt| | | | | | | | | | | | | Personal Selling| | | | | | | | | | | | | Sales Promotion| | | | | | | | | | | | | Performance Evaluation | Objective| Strategies| Evaluation| 1| Increase Brand Awareness| * Telephone * Email * Personal Selling| * Numbers of customer who are willing to answe r a call and give helpful information. Numbers of customer who reply email and make a request for further discussion. * Numbers of customer who are willing to interact with sell person and distribute in the conversation. | 2| Increase Sale| * Personal Selling * Sale Promotion| * Numbers of customer who accept to make a contract with DKSH in supplying necessary ingredients. | 3| Create Demand | * Sale Promotion| * Number of customers who firstly have no demand in finding new suppliers but changing later due to competitive proposed price. Conclusion In this report, the general information about Processed Food ; Food Service and Confectionery ; Bakery clusters will be analyzed in order to outline the SWOT analysis for DKSH. Additionally, Push strategy will be applied to reach 60 potential customers. Specifically, integrated marketing communication tools such as direct marketing (telephone and email marketing), personal selling and trade promotions will be used to support the push strat egy to approach to the potential customers.At the same time, these tools can help to retain and strengthen relationships with the current customers. Appendix Potential Customer List Mapping Itinerary Southern Northern Reference 1. Ã¢â¬ËDKSH seeks a boost in AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢ 2012, ICIS news, posted 13th August, viewed 1st September 2012, ;https://docs. google. com/a/rmit. edu. vn/viewer? a=v;pid=gmail;attid=0. 1;thid=1392e4d1b429e96b;mt=application/pdf;url=https://mail. google. com/mail/u/0/? ui%3D2%26ik%3D0e4ae12cf9%26view%3Datt%26th%3D1392e4d1b429e96b%26attid%3D0. %26disp%3Dsafe%26zw;sig=AHIEtbQnvWZ6Rh09SpbtN_3J-u-kBRPiKg; 2. Agri-Food Canada 2011, Package Food in Vietnam, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, viewed 14 August 2012, ; http://www. gov. mb. ca/agriculture/statistics/agri-food/vietnam_packaged_food_en. pdf; 3. BBC 2011 Ã¢â¬Å"Vietnam Inflation Rate Hits 13. 9%Ã¢â¬ , BBC, 22 March 2011,viewed 15 August 2012, ; http://www. bbc. co. uk/news/business-12845809; 4. Brenntag Asi a Pacific 2012, Brenntag Vietnam Co Ltd, viewed 28th August 2012, ;http://www. brenntag-asiapacific. com/en/pages/Brenntag_Asia_Pacific/Lo
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Are reason and emotion equally necessary in justifying moral decisions - Essay Example It is interesting to study the processes through which a person goes through while arriving at a final decision, specifically, moral ones that test his or her character and loyalty. Often we see that the decisions that we take are decided by many factors. We are often trained to take decisions that are unbiased, but at some point of time in our lives, we come upon a dilemma wherein we start to question established rules and seek answers to why we must not heed to put emotional values while taking decisions. We tend to ask whether logic is all that we need to face the realities of life. We tend to consider why emotions are not given due importance in the decision making processes that can severely affect out lives in the future. The tension that arises out of conflict between heeding our inner voice and heeding to logic can create many problems in life. Essentially emotion is automatic and reflexive while logic is learned and acquired. While emotions are different from person to perso n, logic is more or less standard in its approach. In a way, it may be said that emotions are the real nature of a person, while logic conditions one to conform to the rules of the society. Decision making is dependent on the importance of the situation. While deciding on important things, such as opting between the elevator or the stairs, or making a decision on skipping breakfast, a person does not need to spend much time on the decision-making process. Sometimes, a person is not even aware that a decision has been made as he or she carries on with the chores of the day. However, when it comes to moral decisions that can have important ramifications in life, a person may have to stretch his or her mental faculties beyond the mundane and summon reason and emotion to come up with the right decision. Hence, it may be seen that there are certain situations in life where emotions and logic
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Developing Artificial Intelligence - Essay Example This is because it is yet unclear as to what comprises a human beingÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, and what is the driving force behind his/her intelligence. Is it a manifestation of the immortal soul or is it just a complex network of nerves comprising the nervous system? To create an intelligent machine or a computer, it is necessary to grant it with thinking capabilities that are at par with humans. If such an intelligent machine is ever created, how can we test whether it can think on its own? How can it be certified as Artificial Intelligence? Alan Mathison Turing, a computer analyst, mathematician and cryptoanalyst, provided a simple solution to this problem. In a paper published in the Journal Mind, in 1950, Turing suggests that rather than creating complications by using the word Ã¢â¬Å"thinkÃ¢â¬ , defining it, or asking whether machines can Ã¢â¬Å"thinkÃ¢â¬ , it is easier to develop a task that requires thinking, and testing whether a machine can succeed in that task. AlanÃ Math isonÃ Turing,Ã aÃ computerÃ analyst,Ã mathematicianÃ andÃ cryptoanalyst,Ã providedÃ aÃ simpleÃ solutionÃ toÃ thisÃ problem.Ã InÃ aÃ paperÃ publishedÃ inÃ theÃ JournalÃ Mind,Ã inÃ 1950,Ã TuringÃ suggestsÃ thatÃ ratherÃ thanÃ creatingÃ complicationsÃ byÃ usingÃ theÃ wordÃ Ã¢â¬Å"thinkÃ¢â¬ ,Ã definingÃ it,Ã orÃ askingÃ whetherÃ machines.... Turing put forth the idea that machines could be devised to think and be capable of Ã¢â¬Å"rivaling human intelligenceÃ¢â¬ . He writes: The original question, "Can machines think?" I believe to be too meaningless to deserve discussion. Nevertheless I believe that at the end of the century the use of words and general educated opinion will have altered so much that one will be able to speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted (p. 440). This idea was revolutionary and contrary to the popular notions and beliefs of his time (Ã¢â¬Å"The Alan Turing Internet ScrapbookÃ¢â¬ ). Turing suggested an imitation game that could be used to test whether a computer is as intelligent as a human being. The directions of the game are as follows: A human and a machine, labeled Ã¢â¬ËXÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËYÃ¢â¬â¢ are placed in separate rooms. Another human, who is the judge/interrogator/observer, is placed in another room and is unaware of who is in which room. He only knows t he human and the machine by the labels, Ã¢â¬ËXÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËYÃ¢â¬â¢. The judge/interrogator will have to find out who is the human and who is the machine based on the responses he gets from both, the human and the machine. The machine will try to make the judge conclude that the other human is the machine. The human will try to help the judge in identifying the machine (Turing, 1950). In simple words, a computer and a human should be placed in two separate rooms and should communicate through textual messages with a third human, who is the judge or the observer. The judge would interrogate both, the human and the machine. The judge will then decide who is in which room. If the judge fails to make the right judgment and fails to distinguish between the human and the machine, the machine is said to be successful and will have
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Slavery and movents to end it - Essay Example However, the most flourishing anti-slavery movement at that time was the abolitionism movement. The main objective of abolitionism was to radically emancipate all slaves in the country and to end segregation and discrimination that was rampant in the American society at the time (Filler 1833). The radical nature of abolitionism distinguished the movement from other movements of its historical period. Abolitionism movement was also fueled by religious dedication in the second great awakening. The movementÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity therefore attracted contradictory and similar opinions from different scholars. The authors, Douglass, Pessen, and Thoreau held similar opinion on the necessity of radical transformation in ending slavery in the United States of America. In his writing, Frederick Douglass emphasized the need for immediate and radical action to end slavery and racism in the state. He offered an indomitable voice of hope to slavery in his writing. In his lecture, Frederick also talked about the need to embrace anti-slavery politics in the country. In his writings, Pessen talked about the need to fight for equality of the entire American citizenry. He condemned the unjust glorification of man through the use of erroneous information. During the abolitionism movement, Pessen discussed how the enslaved women and black Americans were mistreated by the government and other owners of the means of production (David 177). Henry David Thoreau emphasized the need for civil noncompliance in the fight for the rights of the enslaved minorities and women in the society. He was once imprisoned for breaking the law by declining to remit tax revenues. It is clear that, Douglass, Pessen, and Henry David Thoreau advocated for a radical movement that would eliminate slavery and forge discussions for fairness justice for all citizens of America. These renowned authors were solidly behind the abolitionism movement. The three held diverse opinions on the manner in which radical
Monday, August 26, 2019
Duty to Warn and to Protect - Essay Example Some individuals may cause harm to themselves while other may be dangerous to other people. In any case, it is the job of a therapist to make sure that a person copes with the personal crisis and carries on happy and productive life. For the purposes of this paper, one should imagine the following scenario. The author will be a therapist that has a patient. The latter tends to be distressed. He is a white male in his mid-twenties, experiencing a personal crisis: he wants to find a girl who will ultimately become his wife, but he simply can not, not matter how hard he tries. His inability to cope with this problem causes him to experience severe stress. There are two ways that he deals with it: on the one hand, he spends much time in the bed, waiting for the feelings that tear his soul to go away; on the other hand, he recently started thinking about hurting other people. The latter thoughts are very rare and the subject clearly acknowledges that they are wrong. However, he admits that there are times when he looses control over his actions. To begin with, it may be important to identify the legal issues that this case holds. Thus, the therapist is made aware of the violent intentions of his client. The latter said several times that hurting others will allow him to release the stress. The subject is well educated person with a stable income with no legal history. Other than during the session he acts cheerfully and assertive. It is highly likely that he will be able to buy a gun if he wants to. With all this in mind, the therapist is faced with a possibility that his client might start a shooting spree. That is why it is the legal obligation of the former to inform law enforcing agencies that there is a subject in the area that experiences a personal crisis and made a clear statement of possible intentions of hurting others because of that. There is also an
Sunday, August 25, 2019
IP Management - Strategies and Tactics in Managing IP Disputes - Term Paper Example order to understand the concept of Intellectual Property strategy it is essential to understand the concepts behind Intellectual Property and strategy and the combination of these both terms. The Intellectual Property strategy, according to different analysts, is the tactic and method used for the management of the Intellectual Property rights by focusing on different activities like licensing and filing. On the other hand, there is another school of thought according to which Intellectual Property strategy is like any other business strategy and the focus is on using the Intellectual Property rights for the management of the technology. These is also a perception that Intellectual Property strategies are only associated with the large multinationals organizations and small or not for profits companies have nothing to do with Intellectual property. This perception is not correct, the Intellectual Property and associated Intellectual Property strategy is important and relevant for the companies of any size (Kitching & Blackburn, 1998). INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: In order to understand the different strategies and tactics associated with intellectual property, it is first important to know what is the meaning of intellectual property. Intellectual property is the term used to refer to the creation or formation of human mind like different inventions, symbols, artistic work, literary work, images, designs and other associated things. For all these creations of the human minds the creator is awarded with a set of exclusive rights associated for the innovation or discovery. These rights and laws are provided to the owners or creators of the intangible assets which cannot be recorded or documented otherwise (Merges, 1997). Intellectual Property can be further divided into two... The intention of this study is an intellectual property as the term used to refer to the creation or formation of human mind like different inventions, symbols, artistic work, literary work, images, designs and other associated things. For all these creations of the human minds the creator is awarded with a set of exclusive rights associated for the innovation or discovery. These rights and laws are provided to the owners or creators of the intangible assets which cannot be recorded or documented otherwise. Intellectual Property can be further divided into two categories: one is of the industrial property which consists of inventions, industrial designs, trademarks, etc. and other is copyright which consists of different type of artistic and literary work like poems, novels, films, drawings, musical work, photographs, paintings, sculptures, musical work, etc. Out of all these the types of Intellectual Property which are widely used and are most common are: trademarks, copyrights, pat ents, trade secrets, and industrial design rights. The term of Intellectual Property is relatively new, as it was started being used in the nineteenth century and become more common and popular in the twentieth century. The main aim or purpose behind the use of Intellectual Property is the protection and security of the innovation by the creator or innovator. Along with this the financial incentives associated with the Intellectual Property also encourage people to come up with new innovations in order to get Intellectual Property which in turn results in the development of the overall society and world.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Communications Plan - Assignment Example A two month period is enough to present the audience with enough examples on the effects of tobacco and cigarette smoking. Within this two month period, I will be able to collect enough data on the people who have had their life turned upside down as a result of tobacco use and tobacco smoking ("Health effects of," 2013). The time period of one month is enough for me to present my plan to the audience and give the audience enough time to ask questions about my presentation. The time frame of two months will be enough for the audience to obtain enough knowledge of the side effects of tobacco smoking and use and will also give them enough time to think of how to make better decisions on smoking and be cautious of who is around them whenever they are smoking. I am likely to incur high costs in the communication plan. For example, the use of media like radio stations and seminars will require me to channel large sums of money. I will make advertisements on the local radio stations to inf orm the audience about the different seminars intended to be held. Using media to make advertisements is very expensive and will require me to put in a huge sum of money. ... This means that a lot of funds will have to be channeled to research and data collection. Other costs involved the communication plan is the indirect costs and directs costs associated with research. These costs include research and development as well as research and administrative costs. The entire process of interacting with the people, carrying out research, educating people and answering the questions from the audience will involve the use of money. A period of two months is a long time for one to be involved in the communication plan. Time is a resource which is very limiting and expensive. Monitoring the effectiveness of the plan is the performance metrics/targets that will be used in judging on the success of the plan. This metric will include obtaining feedbacks on the communications which have been planned and implemented. The performance metrics will help to determine the level of efficiency and effectiveness on the communication plan. To judge on the success of this commu nication plan, I will obtain feedback from the audience to tell me on how they feel and what they found about the plan. I will also build a method that will be used in the measurement of results. These methods will include a weekly report on the communication plan and the effects of cigarette and tobacco smoking, periodic briefings to the audience, end of the month summary and a formal report (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Aim statement will also be stated prior to the commencement of the communication plan. This will be very helpful at the end of the communication plan as it will help in ascertaining whether the stated aims and goals were arrived at. I will also make use of a structured framework for
Friday, August 23, 2019
Preety Vs Non Preety - Thesis Example It will be argued that those who appear better always do relatively better in their lives Ã¢â¬â keeping all other factors aside. It will further be contended that people who are physically more attractive tend to get more opportunities in their lifetime as compared to their colleagues with unattractive personalities. Moreover, the idea that people with more attractive physical appearances comparatively achieve more in their lives, will be put forward with the help of observation of each and every stage of a human life. Ã¢â¬ËPhysical appearanceÃ¢â¬â¢, for the purpose of this paper must not be misinterpreted as Ã¢â¬ËbeautyÃ¢â¬â¢, as the idea of beauty as mere physical appearance is subjective. The physical appearance indicated throughout this paper will relate to only physical attractiveness which may find its roots in different characteristics of a person like his/her intelligence, approach, personality, richness, way of communication and/or prettiness etc. The paper propos es that even though a personÃ¢â¬â¢s physical attractiveness may not usually determine his/her working capacity, it is a recurring phenomenon that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s physical appearance affects other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of him thus giving rise to unequal distribution of opportunities amongst the working class based on their physical attractiveness (Loh). ... to show its effectsÃ¢â¬ (Jackson) It is further proposed that the phrase Ã¢â¬Ëdeciding his/her lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s eventual success in life through different stages that every human has to live e.g. childhood, teenage, young adulthood, adulthood and finally old-age. It does not mean that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal life decisions are based upon his physical appearance, however, it refers to the idea that otherÃ¢â¬â¢s decision with respect to him/her will definitely depend upon his/her physical appearance. The human society revolves around interdependence and notions of social contract (Hampton) which require social interaction and such social interaction is undoubtedly influenced largely by each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s physical appearances. Throughout the paper, the main focus will be upon the influence of physical appearance in the social interactions (reflections and perceptions) in different frameworks of various institutions that one happens to come across in his ent ire life-time. Ã¢â¬Å"Democratic or not, physical attractiveness has an important influence in almost every realm of behavior in which its effects have been studiedÃ¢â¬ (Jackson). Through following three subdivided stages of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, this paper will discuss above mentioned contentions in the light of physical attractiveness Ã¢â¬â (a) Childhood (Kindergarten), (b) Teenage and young adulthood (Middle & High School), (c) Adulthood & Old-age (Job market and Retired life). 2. Effect of Physical Appearance in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s Childhood life: The birth of a child is known to have been the most beautiful gift of nature. But is this beauty enough to blossom that child as beautifully as others who were born at the same time as him? The most logical answer that follows is Ã¢â¬â no. There will always be an unequal distribution of resources
Soviet and American cold war polices Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words
Soviet and American cold war polices - Term Paper Example This cold war mindset of America began during the presidency of Truman in the 1940's and continued on well into the 1950's. Although the Truman administration already had a strong anti communism stance, his death allowed his vice president to implement even more stringent cold war policies against the perceived enemy, Russia1 The reason that these cold war policies between the two nations became such a serious matter for the international community is that both countries, armed with their nuclear weapons, were constantly threatening each other with the total destruction of their rival nation should they meet in actual combat. The Russian (collective name for the Soviet Union) policy under Stalin was clear as daylight. Russia would dominate and create subservient countries in Eastern Europe in order to prevent the spread of democracy and the American policies in their region. Russia fully utilized its occupation of certain European countries in order to actively recruit and assist in the spread of their ideology. By 1948, at least seven European countries had been established as communist governments with Russia implementing unequal trade agreements with other Eastern European countries, creating what then British Prime Minister Winston Churchill termed as the Ã¢â¬Å"Iron CurtainÃ¢â¬ .2 On the other hand, the United States and its allies did their best to implement their cold war policy of containment. This meant that the Russian communist ideologies would not be allowed to spread outside of Eastern Europe. This was to be achieved by preventing Russia from using the power and position it achieved during the world war in its quest to reshape the post war international order. 3 It is important to note that during the time that the U.S. cold war policy was being implemented, there were certain politician in America who actually opposed the policy that was beginning to take shape. One of the more notable opponents of the cold war policy was was the former vice pre sident to Franklin Delano Roosevelt named Henry Wallace. He took a stand against the U.S. policy of containment and was a very vocal advocate of the cause. According to Wallace, appearing before the Senate Armed Service Committee he took the opportunity to Ã¢â¬Å"criticize Truman's call for universal military trainingÃ¢â¬ 4 which would force all young American men of a certain age into military service. This was the beginning of the military draft era in American history. Wallace believed that Truman was instead trying to deliberately start a crisis by implementing a program that would lead to "death and taxes for the many and very handsome profits for the few."5 Rather, he advocated that the U.S. implement a foreign policy based upon the need for peaceful foreign policy among nations. One can imagine that due to the cold war policies
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Promote Professional Development Essay The importance of continually providing knowledge and practice is to keep up with the constant changes that are happening all the time. Globalisation and technology have made changes in health and social care at a rapid rate. There has been a significant change in the way that care is being experienced and there are higher expectations in the quality of care. A more personal approach is required and accessibility to training resources ensures that we can all be the best in our job roles and in line with legal requirements. There are opportunities available now, thanks to technology advancements, to share responsibilities across the board, we have better access to other partnerships, training programs and can store more data than ever before and there are still developments every day. The importance of learning these developments is that we can change with the times and gain the new skills to improve the outcome for service users. The barriers to professional development require you to look in more depth at yourself. Everybody has a different way of learning, someone may learn a lot quicker than someone else, so itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to try to see what ways you retain information best. Some people may learn from reading something over and over until it either makes sense or sticks with them. Some people may write down what they want to learn because it ingrains in there memory and some people may just listen to something and retain the information. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to remember that what someone else might learn from a sentence may be more educational to them than if someone else was to read that very same sentence. Motivation can be another barrier; external factors can drive motivation and change behaviour like incentives to learn but internal barriers such as self-esteem, drive and desire can have an effect on professional development. An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personal values, beliefs, attitudes and life priorities can impact significantly on the way people develop. Not having enough time to develop your skills or financial problems can be a big barrier to development. To get through these barriers, Support from peers, advice and mentoring may be required to h elp with individual developments. There are many different sources and systems to support professional development. At my organisation we have internal support which involves monthly supervisions with an advocate. We go through trainingÃ requirements, any training refreshment that need to be done; we go over policies and procedures and discuss our progress for professional development. We have training courses that cover every area of the care we provide and e-learning that all employees complete every 6 months, they are designed to refresh our training and inform us of new policies and procedures. You can also learn by working with more experienced colleagues and you can self-teach by reading text books and articles. You can develop your knowledge by using facilities such as libraries and learning resource centres and there is also formal support, colleague and university courses, internet courses, apprenticeships and government incentives. You can also use the policies and procedures put in place by your company to learn what is required and how to do things appropriately. There are so many factors to consider when selecting opportunities and activities for keeping knowledge and practice up to date. There would be no point in starting a course in child care if your real desire was to become a hypnotherapist. Financial issues could be problem, your organisation may cover learning costs or you may need to look into whether you are entitled to government help or whether you will be self-funding. Time requirements could be a problem and your level of commitment; maybe you are a single mother, who cannot get child care to attend night school. Another factor could be, does the opportunity or activity fit with your learning style?, You may learn better from practical activities or learn better from reading and writing, finding the right form of professional development is key to being successful. Be able to prioritise goals and targets for your own professional development In order to prioritise goals and targets for my own professional development, I look at the influences that have helped me to develop my performance so far and look at what my training has taught me and how itÃ¢â¬â¢s reflected in my work. I examine my strengths and weaknesses honestly and try to think about the way I practice in a constructive way. I have to evaluate myself by asking; How did I approach my work? Was my approach positive? How did the way I work affect the people I support? Did I work to the best of my ability? Which was the best aspect of my work? Which was the worst aspect of my work? Is there areaÃ¢â¬â¢s that I can improve? What are they and how will I tackle them? In health and social care there are benchmarks and standards that I can use to measure my own ability against, like the Ã¢â¬Ëcare quality commission standardsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëcodes of practiceÃ¢â¬â¢. By comparing my work against these standards I can improve on the areas that I am failing in, by setting goals of what I need to learn and targets to complete it by. To prioritise my own development goals and targets, I have to think realistically about what is necessary for my job role at that moment, for example; if you are developing your communication skills and working towards building relationships and trust, you cannot plan a set strategy to produce trust and this can take time. But if you were developing your skills for independent living, encouraging accessing the community and shopping, this is something that is currently in my job role and could be a skill I can develop straight away. Making a plan to monitor each stage of developing skills will help me to see at what point something has not worked, for example; I am to Supporting Bobby with his shopping, but due to his mental health problems, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel comfortable being in a busy supermarket around lots of people. Putting a plan together with goals and targets will help to monitor BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s progress; I could put a target in place to build BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence up enough so he can be in a supermarket. By recording this process and evaluating each step that it took to get him there, I improve my own skills and gain knowledge for any similar situations that may arise in the future. Be able to prepare a professional development plan To plan my own professional development with sources of support available to me, I will first have to arrange a meeting with my trainer and supervisor to identify the learning outcomes and objectives that I wish to achieve. We can then put a strategy together to meet these objectives and a time frame in which to complete them by and with their help and resources. When documenting evidence I will specify the duty, a goal, tools needed for reaching my goal and a completion date. I will then undertake the necessary educational activities, training and shadowing and collect more evidence forÃ my portfolio. I will review my progress at regular intervals with my trainer and supervisor to discuss any updates and get feedback on my development. My portfolio will contain evidence of records of attendance and the support that was given, highlighted areas of what I would have done differently, highlighted areas of successful care and certificates of achievements. I can also show in my portfolio, evidence of what has benefited my colleagues, i.e. protocols or guidelines that have been introduced because of things that I have learnt and feedback from colleagues on a job well done. I will show evidence of evaluating work that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t done to the best of my ability and show evidence of what I have learnt to correct my work. I will put in my development portfolio evidence of any positive feedback, descriptions of new care plans made because of my positive changes, cards, letters or individual comments and positive audit results. This is an example of a plan that I would use for my own professional development. A service user I attend with learning difficulties needs a new wheelchair; the carers are finding it increasingly hard to push the service user around in the wheelchair for social visits. A healthy diet plan was encouraged but is not working as the service user lives independently, a wheelchair with a motor is needed to help the carers avoid any further injury and carry on supporting the service user to access the community. I have been allocated the responsibility to assist the service user pick a new wheelchair with a motor, I can use this opportunity to develop new skills and document and evaluate my progress. There are a few barriers to overcome so monitoring the effectiveness of my support will help to evaluate my performance and relay any significant information to fellow colleagues and others crucial support in their care, ultimately helping the service user in the future. The main barrier is the lady doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like change; it worries her and makes her very anxious, when she is anxious she gets the medical condition hives. Her confidence will need to be built up over time. The goal is to help the lady pick a new motorised wheelchair for accessing the community only, she can continue with the wheelchair she is familiar with, and likes at home, but the goal is to find one that the service user is 100% happy and secure in, to prevent any further injures to carers and to keep the lady involved in her daily routines. The tools needed for succeeding with this duty is to have the families support, a risk assessment, a shop with accessibility andÃ understanding with this sensitive issue and support from my managers and any other active partners that support with the service users care needs. For evidence I would put in my portfolio the emails from the partnerships, my advocate and myself that detail, the support that is needed, with the evidence that I have been allocated to support with this. The email will also show my reply, for the request of informing all other carers to reassure her when necessary for when she gets anxious and upset. I would put in place a communication diary especially to deal with this task, firstly to monitor any upset behaviour and how my colleagues and I resolved it and secondly I could use it as evidence. I would keep a written account of how many trips to the shops and what her behaviour was like on each visit, I would record what helped keep her calm and feeling secure and record anything that failed and how we made it better. I would keep a medical record of any outbreaks of hives and how it was treated. I would have regular meetings with my advocate to get feedback, discuss updates, ask for any advice or help that I need and review the completion date. I would discuss attending training courses that could help me with addressing this situation to the best of my ability, like manual handling, first aid, communication skills and keep evidence of my achievements. I would finally add to my portfolio evidence of the service user (in line with confidentiality requirements) accomplishing this task, I would get evidence of how long it took to achieve and what the final outcome was. Be able to improve performance through reflective practice Models of reflection encourage a structured process to guide the act of reflection, there is no right model of reflection, but it is important to choose the one that you feel comfortable using and best assists you to learn from your experience. Sometimes it is appropriate to use one model of refection as a basis, but use prompt questions from other models if they suit your particular situation. I found Bortons Model of reflection easy to remember; therefor making it is easy to apply to an experience as it happens. What, So What, Now What, the simplicity of the model helps evaluate quickly and simply an experience but does not allow for specific details as opposed to Gibbs Model. Johns Model of reflection is based more on self-awareness and self-improvement. It allows you to analyse influencingÃ factors on your thoughts and behaviour, what triggers the behaviour and you can delve far more intimately into your feelings, opinions and judgements and intern how this affected who you are working with. This level of learning allows you to evaluate very deeply on all levels, morals, background, knowledge, self-awareness, past experiences and future practice, making this model of reflection by far more personal and a more appropriate model for self-improvement and self-development. The Kolb model is made up of 4 steps and learning can start at any of the steps at any time, there is no process. When a person carries out an action they can both, observe and reflect upon its underlying process and possible consequences. The action becomes open for analysis, concepts can be tested at further through new experiences in order to both validate and develop them further. Gibbs Model of reflection is a more descriptive model of KolbÃ¢â¬â¢s and it also has a process in which to follow allowing for deeper analysis. Gibbs model gives you more a detailed structure in which to evaluate your experience, which is why I found it to be more widely used in the healthcare industry. The theory follows 6 steps of the model, and each step informs the next. I found that using Gibbs model and examining an experience in greater detail was very beneficial but found the Evaluation, Analysis and conclusion asked very similar questions which seemed to be a little repetitive. But Gibbs model challenged my assumptions more and allowed me to explore more ideas to promote self-improvement more than the other models. Of all the models of refection I have researched I found these 4 more beneficial to my learning and self-improvement and they even challenged what I thought I already knew. By using Gibbs Cycle as a basis and applying the descriptive evaluations of all the other models to the specific levels, I can examine myself in far more depth and improve my quality of work consistently. Reflective practice is thinking or reflecting on what you do, it is learning from an experience and teaching you evaluation skills to examine your actions and reactions. Thinking about what h as happened is part of being human but reflective practice differentiates between casual thinking and reflective practice, it requires a conscious effort to think about events and develop insights into them. Once you get into the habit of using reflective practice, it becomes a skill and you can develop it every day, in every type of situation. Feedback from others is a very important part of reflectiveÃ practice, as you cannot always see what your own faults may be or you may not want to hear what faults you have. Considering feedback as another opportunity to learn will develop your self-awareness and can start a process of change that will benefit anyone that you work with. For example, very early on in my healthcare career, I supported an elderly lady with learning disabilities, since her husband past away; she would get very lonely and ask to move a lot. Her social worker and advocate had taken her to see a few warden controlled apartments in a more communal building, but the lady did not like them and it gave her a bad experience of what she thought was available to her. I work in a few homes for elderly service users with learning disabilities and I invited my service user round for tea, so she could see a different kind of living situation, a house share that could be available. Whilst the trip was successful in the way that the lady now knew of a different living arrangement, at a meeting shortly after, that involved other healthcare providers for the service user, I acquired feedback from the ladies advocate that showed my own faults and issues that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t within my capability to see. My intention had been misunderstood and Unknown to me the service user had wanted and was adamant, that a housemate was to move into her own home as she had a spare room; this was not a suitable situation for another vulnerable adult to move into because of the service userÃ¢â¬â¢s regular change of behaviour, and the house shares have a carer on duty at all times. If I had informed and attained advice on this situation it could have been dealt with in a different way. My lack of knowledge and understanding of how my actions could been seen as something different for a service user made me evaluate at what level I went wrong and how to rectify this problem so it is not an issue in the future. The advocate commended me on my thoughtfulness but advised certain aspects need to be considered when working with this particular service user. Trial and Error is always going to be a big part of my learning development, working with others there is always going to be the potential for harm, both physically and emotionally. It is imperative that practice changes as a result of these mistakes.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Impact of Overpopulation in India REFLECTIVE 1 IMPACT OF OVERPOPULATION IN INDIA Executive summary: On the conceptual note evaluation of overpopulation is highly straight forward. Groups usually rely over the local geographical area for their nourishment and in cases if the productivity does not meet the demands placed by the group it naturally results in migration of the group towards a productive location. Sustainability could be explored as the ration between the totalities of the demands placed by the group to that of the ability of the geographical location to serve the demands. The following assessment would involve the assessment of overpopulation as an attribute stimulating opportunities and multiplying resistance for IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s growth and development. The 2oth century is a memorable timeline of population growth across the globe with the figures of inhabitants multiplying by 100% from that of 3 billion to 6 billion in just a span of 40 years. During this growth India has not gone exceptional in witnessing a rapid growth where it raised its population bars from 448 million to a whopping sum of 1.04 billion which has now reached 1.21 billion (Chakraborti, 2010). The following picture offers more insight over the state of rapid development that India is witnessing in contrast to the growth of worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population (Chakraborti, 2010). Global population across the globe has been multiplying at a rate of 2% per annum and currently the growth trends in India is reflecting a rate of 1.4% there by surpassing the 0.7% rate of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s population (Chandrasekhar, 2011) Changes in Demographics and economic growth / Health attributes in India: In the past decades there have been 2 crucial breakthroughs that India has faced as a result of overpopulation. One is linked with that of the changing structure of age due to population and the other is the link of overpopulation over the state of populationÃ¢â¬â¢s health (Mitra, 2009). Changes in age structure of the population in India has significant effects on the economic growth of the nation and this has been driven by the increasing proportions of baby boomers that was able to create echo effects (Srinivasan, 2011). In the past the whole Indian economy was reliant on the development of the youth which has now taken a transition to a positive note of its demographic profile, which has been stimulating the economic growth. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s population health has been a crucial driving force under its economic development where in the healthier workforce in India was aiding the productivity of individuals and good health in turn multiplied the state of attendance in schools and institutions leading to enhanced education in India (Srinivasan, 2011). The growing population of India has been witnessing a strong decline across the infant mortality rates by about 70% in the past 60 years (Vignath, 2010). The number of deaths per 1000 people from 165 has now gone down to 50 today thanks to the increasing state of medical infrastructure that has been able to address mortality issues in India amidst the increasing rate of population. On the other hand the state of child mortality has also seen a positive transition with the number of deaths per 1000 children declining from 138 to that of 75 today (Chandrasekhar, 2011). The state of life expectancy in India has thus multiplied at a rate of 5 per each decade and the state of fertility rate has also seen a downfall from 6 children to that of women towards 2.5 per women (Vignath, 2010). Source: (Mitra, 2009) The increasing age group of women under the reproductive age has been a driving force behind the increase in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s population from 1.2 billion towards a strong projection of 1.6 billion by 2050. Amidst these the impact of overpopulation on the economic growth has been positive as the decreasing rates of crude births and death rates being a driving force (Mitra, 2009). Source: (Chakraborti, 2010) India is turning more urbanized and it is evident from the totality of the people living in urban areas witnessed a growth of 18% during 1960 to that of 30% in 2008. During this lengthy timeline majority of the deaths 53% were influenced by the multiplication of chronic diseases and which are later influenced down by the decline that the country faced across reduced tobacco consumption, increased nutrition and a shift towards a sedentary lifestyle (Sharma, 2011). Environmental Impacts: Trends in poverty: Environmental degradation in India is highly influenced by the extensive growth of its population which has been making adverse effects on the environment and natural resources. Majority of the poor people India lived across the rural areas with agriculture as their primary profession. There was abundance of programs that the government initiated under the anti-poverty and employment development aspects which was able to help the reduction of poverty ratios in the country. The growth of population aided the reduction of poverty rates in India where the nation had more than 55% of the population under the poverty line during 1974 and has shrinked down to 26% during 2000 (let, 2009). On the numerical count the population of people under poverty reduced from 320 million during 1975 to that of 260 million during 2000 (let, 2009). Amidst the reduction in the poverty rates in India considerable amount of impact was realized in the environmental degradation where in people who were not able to meet their basic needs were completely forced to make use of the natural resource that are under the common property resources (Mitra, 2009). Hence India was faced with severe exploitation of the natural resources and the excess pressure from the increasing population has influenced the degradation of the ground water. On the other hand the increased state of poverty in India has influenced the day to day activities of the poor to make use of the ponds and the rivers to contaminate and exhaust for their day to day activities. The outcome of such interventions has resulted in poor state of health for people who make use of the untreated water contents (Chandrasekhar, 2011). Both poverty as well as the increasing rate of population has been influencing the environmental challenges across India. Even though the positive signs of population growth have aided the growth of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy in reducing Unemployment there exists abundance of environmental issues in India (Srinivasan, 2011). Pressure exerted On Land: Out of all the nations in the globe IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s is exposed to huge volume of pressure in its agricultural land as a result of increasing population (Sharma, 2011). IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s geographical volume of 43% is contributing to the agriculture and the changing demographics have in turn influenced the changing patterns of land utilization. It is evident that the totality of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s population has witnessed a growth of 3 times of the volume from 1950 to 2010 but these growth has been accompanied only by a low growth rate in total area of land for cultivation(20.7% 118 million hectares in 2010 from that of 142 million hectare during 1960) (Mitra, 2009). Majority of the growth in this regard has taken place as a result of the depletion of forest as well as graze lands. Increasing rate of land acquisition by the population of India is yet another critical issue of over population. On the purpose housing, building manufacturing units and industries the acquisition of land has witnes sed a huge rise of about 10.5 million hectares in a span of 10 years (1990 Ã¢â¬â 2000) (Mukhopadhyay, 2012). Contrarily the increasing volume of agricultural extensfication is favouring the dominance of fertilizers which has resulted in water pollution (Vignath, 2010). Some of the worst outcome of agricultural extensfication is the negative impact that it creates over the state of bio diversity and poor state of health in oceans (Sharma, 2011). Degradation of both the land and soil is yet another important outcome of the increasing state of Population in India. The dominance of agricultural interventions and irrigation activities has increased the volume of water logging and most importantly the salination of the soil. The total geographical area of India is near to a volume of 330 million hectares of which about 175 million hectares are under the land degradation with both water and wind erosion topping the list of charts for about 150million hectares (Ranade, 2011). The outcome of soil erosion in India has resulted in increasing number of landslides, deforestation, and floods respectively. The current state of increasing population in India is highly degrading the scope for promoting enhanced food security and sustainability in the forestry context (Ranade, 2011). Declining rates of per Capita in the forest and agriculture land: Increasing population growth trend in India has resulted in declining rates of the per capital availability of forest and agricultural lands. It is evident that the current per capita of forests in india is much lower than the average of the entire worlds per capita (Mukhopadhyay, 2012). Year Per capita availability of Forest Land Per capita availability of agricultural Land 1950 0.112 0.628 1960 0.125 0.501 1970 0.114 0.401 1980 0.098 0.354 1990 0.080 0.322 2000 0.071 0.276 2010 0.065 0.240 Source: (Mukhopadhyay, 2012) Despite the increasing number of intervention being imposed by the government of India to address the declining per capita the increasing state of population has been hindering the ability of accomplishing objectives of gaining high per capita availability (Vignath, 2010). Destruction of the habitat and lessening bio diversity: Bio diversity has increasing value across the state of development in food, agriculture and medicine in India. But increasing population trends has influenced the destruction of Bio diversity in a positive manner; currently India is facing a threat of losing the habitats permanently. The increasing population trends have been increasing the human settlements and modernization of the agriculture is imposing negative impact on the local crops (Srinivasan, 2011). The current population trend in India is capable of offering a threat to more than 1000 animal species and sub species and a sum of 25,000 plants are under threat of losing their identity due to human acquisitions (Vignath, 2010). Patterns of consumption: The economic and industrial development is underlying the rapid changes happening the patterns of consumption; it is evident that IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s strong economic growth has been reflecting in the increasing sales of the motor vehicles (Sharma, 2011). This has naturally resulted in noise pollution, air pollution, traffic jams and has depleted the agricultural lands for building more connectivity of roads. The following table offers insight in to the increasing number of motor vehicle resignation which is an outcome of the increasing population trends in India. It is evident that majority of the growth patterns in the motor vehicle registration has reflected the consumption across metropolitan cities (Vignath, 2010). During 2000 the total population in India was near to 1 billion and at that stage for every 1000 people there were 9 motor vehicles getting registered and it is projected that the population of India is projected to increase to 1.4 Billion which will make the statistics to increase as 44 vehicles for every 1000 people (Mitra, 2009). Thus the projections strongly emphasize the multiplying number of environmental issues as a result of the increase in the motor sales which ultimately results in accumulation of garbage, sanitation and poor housing issues. Increasing level of consumption with reference to the gas, oil and petroleum has also been depleting the non-renewable resources in India (let, 2009). Raising demand for energy is yet another crucial issue that India has been facing in the recent past with the production of petroleum related products witnessing a multiplication of 29 times of the actual volume from 2010. Air pollution: India has topped the list of worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most air polluted nations and the growth of industries, households, transportation has been witnessing exceeding limits than that of proposed by the World health organization. Increase in Illness as well as pre mature deaths are blamed for the increasing number of air pollution in India as a result of over population (Sharma, 2011). Conclusion: The totality of damage caused for India through air pollution has crossed $ 1.3 billion every year and on the other hand the degradation of the water has multiplied the health cost to $ 5.7 million on yearly basis for India (Mukhopadhyay, 2012). It is evident from the analysis that over population has been favoring the state of economic scenario for India with increasing employment and purchasing power but has extensive negative impact over the environment and natural resource management. REFERENCES Chakraborti, D. (2010). The Greying of India: Population Ageing in the Context of Asia (Sixth Edition ed.). SAGE Publications. Chandrasekhar, S. (2011). Indias Population: Fact and Policy (Second Edition ed.). John Day Company. let, J. (2009). Infant Mortality, Population Growth An Essay on Population Problems and International Tensions (Tenth Edition ed.). Routledge. Mitra, A. (2009). Indias Population: Aspects of Quality and Control (Ninth Edition ed.). Abhinav Publications. Mukhopadhyay, K. (2012). Control of Population Growth in India: Statistical Review of Information (Third Edition ed.). Daya Books. Ranade, S. (2011). Population Dynamics in India (Second Edition ed.). APH Publishing. Sharma, K. (2011). Demography and Population Problems (Ninth Edition ed.). Atlantic Publishers. Srinivasan, K. (2011). Regulating reproduction in Indias population: Regulating reproduction in Indias population: (Second Edition ed.). Sage Publications. Vignath, P. (2010). Indias Population: A Study Through Extension of Stable Population Techniques (Fourth Edition ed.). Sterling Publishers.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Nestle Policy On The Environment Environmental Sciences Essay Over the past several decades, significant progress has been achieved towards protecting the worlds environment. This objective remains a fundamental duty and a collective responsibility that must be shared between the public, governments and the private sector. As the World Food Company, NestlÃ © is dedicated to providing consumers with the best food throughout life. Our Companys primary function is the transformation of perishable raw materials into finished products that meet consumers expectations for safety, quality, convenience, and value. From our earliest days, we have recognized the need to protect the environment in our business activities. Exercising this commitment, which is part of our broader commitment towards the good of the community, remains central to our business today and tomorrow. The NestlÃ © Policy on the Environment was published in 1991 to define our world-wide strategy on environmental issues and to state our long-standing commitment to environmentally sound business practices. It is communicated internally within the NestlÃ © Group and externally to all interested parties and institutions. Following its publication, the NestlÃ © Environmental Management System (NEMS) was established to consolidate all environmental measures taken by the NestlÃ © Group. The NEMS is being implemented across our entire business. Today, preserving natural resources and minimizing waste has become a part of day-to-day business for our employees and is an integral part of our strategy to achieve global competitiveness. The 1999 update of the NestlÃ © Policy on the Environment reiterates our strong environmental commitment and reflects our priorities as we move into the new millennium. It also recognises developments in the international environmental arena. The application of the NestlÃ © Policy on the Environment at every level of our operation forms an essential part of the NestlÃ © Corporate Business Principles and enables us to contribute to sustainable development meeting the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Research Development NestlÃ ©s research and development centers have two primary objectives: to create new products and manufacturing processes and to improve those that already exist. Along with product quality and safety, the conservation of resources and the preservation of the environment form an integral part of the development criteria for new projects. Research and development encompasses a wide range of environmentally-related activities with emphasis on: environmentally sound production techniques and sourcing criteria for agricultural raw materials; processing methods that minimize water and energy consumption, as well as waste g eneration; packaging designs that reduce total waste and enable environmentally sound disposal options while safeguarding product safety and quality; and innovative ways to recover by-products and thus generate secondary raw materials and energy. For important product or process innovation and renovation, NestlÃ ©s research and development centers prepare an environmental impact study. This covers significant aspects in the product life cycle, from the sourcing of raw materials, through processing, to the packaged consumer product and the end-life of the packaging material. This study is carefully evaluated, in conjunction with detailed information on the potential manufacturing site, to ensure that new projects meet NestlÃ ©s environmental standards. Of the 807 million Swiss francs spent in 1998 on NestlÃ © RD throughout the Group, a good part went towards enhancing the wholesomeness of our products. Additionally, these expenditures improved our production process, created better packaging, and avoided waste and unwanted residues. RD Is Making a Difference As an example, significant progress has been made in recent years in energy and water intensive blanching and cooking operations. At the end of these processes water must be removed which resulted in wasted energy and raw materials vegetables or pasta for example. Now water is replaced by steam at low pressure. As a result, water consumption was reduced by 80% and product losses during cooking were more than halved. This means lower costs for energy and for wastewater treatment, while at the same time increasing the product yield by 6%. In another example, extraction residues from the production of chicory-based instant drinks, which were expensive to dispose of, have been turned into a valuable animal feed ingredient. A recent processing improvement for french fries showed product quality can be significantly improved while also saving energy. One conclusion of RD is that what is good for the environment is often synonymous with good industrial practice. Preserving Species The disappearance of many species and varieties of animals and plants is a reality. Over the past few years, this issue has attracted increasing recognition and much is being done today to preserve the earths biological diversity. Industry plays an important role in these efforts since many business sectors depend on natures diversity for their sustainable success. NestlÃ ©, as the worlds largest single buyer of coffee and cocoa, lives up to its responsibility by developing the most advanced preservation techniques for many different coffee and cocoa varieties threatened by extinction. In addition, NestlÃ © collaborates with public research institutes to share its experience and makes its results freely available. In the future, NestlÃ © RD units are determined to build environmental protection into products and processes right from the start. High on the agenda are integrated farming techniques involving minimal use of fertilizers and chemicals, and recourse to biological pest control methods whenever possible. SUPPLY CHAIN Agricultural Raw Materials In general, NestlÃ © is not directly involved in the production of raw materials. Wherever possible, locally available raw materials are used. They are either obtained directly from producers or purchased through trade channels. NestlÃ © applies the following principles when sourcing raw materials: all raw materials must meet both legal and internal quality criteria, including limits on possible environmental contaminants; whenever possible, preference is given to raw materials that are produced by environmentally sound farming methods (e.g. integrated crop management); and; farmers are encouraged to apply sustainable farming methods and, where appropriate, are provided with assistance in crop production and dairy farming. Such assistance includes the provision of recommendations for the conservation of natural resources (soil, water, air, energy, bio-diversity) and techniques for reducing environmental impact. Manufacturing Manufacturing comprises all processes that are necessary to transform perishable raw materials into safe and convenient food products for consumers. NestlÃ © strives to achieve optimal performance in its manufacturing activities, including the environmental aspects. As such, the manufacturing practices of the Group: respect natural resources by emphasizing the efficient use of raw materials, water and energy; minimize the use of environmentally-hazardous substances; continuously seek improvement in the efficiency of production facilities; and reduce waste generation and emissions as much as possible, consider recycling of waste a priority and dispose of non-recyclable waste in an environmentally sound manner. Regular environmental assessments of NestlÃ ©s manufacturing practices are conducted to: evaluate factory performance; review factory compliance with applicable legislation and NestlÃ ©s own standards; fully investigate incidents that could affect the environment and take relevant measures; and compare results with previous targets and set new improvement objectives. In addition, NestlÃ © exchanges information on environmental protection technology and practices in order to ensure a wide use of best practices. NestlÃ © encourages its contract manufacturers to use environmentally sound manufacturing practices. Environmental Performance of Our Factories Minimizing the environmental impact of our factories has always been a prime consideration. Therefore, we periodically review environmental performance of the entire NestlÃ © Group. The results are very encouraging: NestlÃ © has no major environmental problems. NestlÃ © complies with relevant regulations or, in a few exceptional cases, has initiated action to do so. Measures taken are proactive and often anticipate future regulations. Many times, measures taken to improve the environment also reduce costs. These surveys also allow us to put concrete figures to our efforts: Over the past years, NestlÃ © has invested an average of some 100 million Swiss francs per year in specific measures to protect the environment. This amounts to approximately 3% of total capital expenditure and includes only readily identifiable environmental investments. In addition, substantial amounts were expended as part of regular capital investment projects and factory environmental operating costs. Examples of these additional expenditures include environmental aspects related to factory construction and renovation, environmental training of personnel, and maintenance costs for wastewater treatment facilities. Recent Environmental Investment The factory environmental surveys are a valuable management tool which are periodically repeated as part of the NestlÃ © Environmental Management System (NEMS). Water, Our Top Priority NestlÃ © engineers and factory planners have pioneered wastewater treatment the world over. Whenever factories went up, often in remote locations of developing countries, where neither local expectations nor legislation required environmental safeguards of any kind, appropriate wastewater treatment was provided. Nearly 30 million Swiss francs have been invested annually over the past few years in wastewater treatment facilities. While we can be genuinely proud of these achievements around the world, we continue to upgrade existing plants and build new ones where necessary. Examples of NestlÃ ©s substantial investments in this area are: As early as 1920 NestlÃ © had constructed and started the operation of a wastewater treatment plant in Kempttal near Zurich. At that time it included a settling basin and trickling filter. 1932 saw the addition of a biological component which constituted Switzerlands first wastewater treatment plant operating with activated sludge, a principle still used today. An 80% reduction in water consumption of some cooking processes through an extensive RD project. A facility in Himeji, Japan, serving one of the largest instant coffee factories in the world, was rightly considered a model installation when it was built almost 30 years ago, and thousands of Japanese water treatment specialists have visited it over the years. A facility in Dongguan, China has established itself as a model for wastewater treatment. It too is visited regularly by Chinese wastewater specialists. Reducing Air Emissions Another important investment area is for air protection. The biggest environmental investments over the past few years went into the conversion of heating units from heavy fuel to natural gas. When these conversions can be used to install combined steam and power generation systems; impressive energy savings are achieved in addition to environmental benefits. Therefore, we favor these co-generation plants wherever feasible. Co-generation processes are much more efficient than conventional power plants and therefore usually lead to a significant, global reduction in both energy consumption and release of greenhouse gases. NestlÃ © currently operates over 10 co-generation facilities throughout the world. Co-generation examples are: At the NestlÃ © Gerona plant in Spain, the co-generation system, commissioned in 1991, reduced gas consumption by 3600 tons of oil, equivalent per year, and decreased overall carbon dioxide emissions by 8000 tons annually. The savings at the York factory in Britain, where a coal-fired boiler house has been replaced by a gas turbine co-generation plant, are very impressive. Carbon dioxide output was reduced from 131,000 tons per year to 59,000 tons per year. Additionally, sulfur dioxide emissions are completely avoided at the factory level (650 tons per year) and cut by more than half, from 1059 to 436 tons, at the level of the supplying national power station. Phasing Out Ozone-Damaging CFCs The characteristics of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) make them suitable for a wide range of refrigeration and air conditioning applications necessary for many of NestlÃ ©s manufacturing processes. However, there is evidence that they contribute to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. This has led to several inter-governmental agreements to phase out the use of CFCs. NestlÃ © anticipated this phase out early and has established a detailed CFC phase-out program to replace CFCs used in industrial refrigeration systems with non-CFC alternatives. To date, NestlÃ © has reduced its CFC emissions by more than 80% of 1986 levels. We are committed to continuing to address the issue of ozone-depleting substances and further improve these dramatic results. Recovering Solid Waste Landfills in many countries are rapidly approaching their limits, thus becoming a costly and cumbersome problem. However, NestlÃ © has stopped looking at solid waste as part of the problem, but as part of the solution. Solid waste has become a valuable raw material when recycled, composted or used for fuel in energy recovery processes. Coffee grounds, which are a by-product of instant coffee manufacturing, is a case in point: Much of the investment related to solid waste is earmarked to build coffee ground energy-recovery systems that use the coffee grounds energy value to produce steam for our factories. In Raja Muda, Malaysia we installed this state-of-the-art machinery, the first of its kind in Asia, outside Japan. Now coffee grounds are used as fuel. Thus, for every 100 tons of coffee grounds we save the equivalent of about 40 tons of fossil fuel. The decision to develop and install this energy-recovery system is typical for how NestlÃ © anticipates problems and pioneers solutions. Additionally, in some markets factory solid wastes are composted to produce a high quality soil amendment product. In some cases this product is packaged and sold for use as a 1natural fertilizer. In New Milford Connecticut, USA NestlÃ © built a state of the art composting facility that processes both solid and liquid wastes, sludges, and by-products from its local factories, co-packers, and distribution centers. Additionally, the composting facility provides a solution to the local community for disposal of landscaping and gardening wastes, which are banned from landfills in that area. This facility recycles more than 50,000 tons of waste materials annually, preventing them from going to landfills. Packaging Packaging serves a major role in our daily lives. It protects food products from spoilage and ensures safety from manufacture through storage, distribution and consumption. Packaging may also provide tamper-evidence features. It communicates information, including nutritional information and serving instructions, and provides the convenience demanded by todays consumers. NestlÃ © is committed to reducing the environmental impact of packaging, without jeopardizing the safety, quality or consumer acceptance of its products. It is NestlÃ ©s objective to develop safe and wholesome packaged foods using the most efficient and appropriate packaging materials available, while, at the same time, satisfying consumer requirements and expectations. NestlÃ © seeks packaging solutions that: result in the lowest possible weight and volume of packages; take into account new packaging materials and processes that reduce the impact on the environment; avoid the use of substances that can adversely impact the environment during packaging production and disposal; decrease packaging waste at all stages, including package manufacturing, use and disposal; increase the use of recycled materials wherever possible; and increase the recyclability and compatibility of its packages with existing packaging waste management schemes. Regular assessments of NestlÃ ©s packaging are carried out and action plans are implemented. NestlÃ © supports industrial and governmental efforts to promote integrated waste management that takes into consideration matters such as source reduction, reuse, recycling, composting, energy recovery, and landfill. NestlÃ © encourages suppliers of its packaging materials to adopt sound environmental practices. Packaging Source Reduction Packaging waste is one environmental issue that affects the entire consumer goods industry. However, the gap is wide between reality and perception: While food packaging accounts for less than 1% of total solid waste in most countries, it is highly visible to consumers. Even if the problem of food packaging is small in relation to overall environmental problems, it is nevertheless an important issue for NestlÃ ©. The most direct opportunity to reduce the scale of the problem is to use as little material as possible. This is not a recent effort by the food industry. Over the last four decades, between the 1950s and 1990s, the weight of a glass milk bottle has been reduced by 36%, a steel food can by 66%, and an aluminium beer can by 81%. Even though packaging source reduction has always been a consideration, we decided to reinforce these efforts in a more systematic way. The first world-wide environmental packaging survey was completed in 1991 for the NestlÃ © Group and has been repeated annually ever since. The last survey revealed that by the end of 1998, NestlÃ ©, without compromising product quality, reduced our use of packaging materials by nearly 150,000 tons compared to 1990. These reductions resulted in savings of approximately 250 million Swiss francs. Cumulative Reductions in Packaging Materials Examples of Packaging Source Reduction A few recent examples that underline NestlÃ ©s efforts: In Australia the Easter Egg Novelty cartons were reduced in size by altering the design to provide support for the egg. The new design resulted in a 31% reduction in use of paper board. In Pakistan the NestlÃ © NIDO package, which consisted of 4 bags in a display box, was replaced by an aluminium stand-up pouch. This resulted in a 39% reduction, or 47 tons, and saves 290,000 Swiss francs per year. In Indonesia the NestlÃ © Dancow 200 and 400g display boxes were reduced in size by 18 and 25%, respectively. This resulted in a waste reduction of 38 tons and saved nearly 100,000 Swiss francs per year. In Columbia the display box for Maggi bouillon tablets was eliminated. This resulted in a reduction of 303 tons of packaging material and represented a savings of over one million Swiss francs per year. While important progress has already been achieved, we strive to continuously identify opportunities for further reduction. Distribution Distribution of products from the factory to the customer involves transport and storage. Efficient management of the distribution system is essential to preserve the safety and quality of NestlÃ ©s products, to ensure a high level of customer service, and to meet its commitment to environmentally sound business practices. To this end, NestlÃ ©: selects appropriate transportation modes, with particular attention given to optimum unit loads (pallets), vehicle-capacity utilization, route planning, and consolidation with outside partners, scheduling, and fuel conservation; optimises warehouse and distribution center locations and environmentally efficient operational systems; and identifies and implements measures to reduce energy consumption and waste. NestlÃ © encourages its distribution service providers to use environmentally sound practices. Distributing our goods from factory to retail centers consumes some 400 million liters of fuel each year. While we undertake every effort to reduce this, it is useful to put this figure into perspective: the distribution of 10 kg of our products from factories to retail outlets in Europe requires an average of 0.25 liters of fuel. To transport the same amount from the supermarket to home, consumers burn, on average, one to two liters of fuel. Efficient Container Loading Improving transport efficiency benefits the environment, but it also makes economic sense. Seemingly simple measures, such as replacing bulky wooden pallets by thin, carton-type slip-sheets, have the potential to save more than 600 international truck journeys a year in our European operations alone. Optimizing shipping cases to fill transport vehicles without leaving gaps between differently shaped containers, together with optimal route planning, NestlÃ © has already achieved substantial savings. Pioneering Rail Transport In countries with competitive railways, moving goods from road to rail is an effective option to reduce road congestion. For example: Vittel has developed a specially adapted block train concept to supply its regional terminals in France. Vittel transports nearly half of its production, or over 930 million bottles per year, by rail. Our Swiss, and later the Austrian subsidiary, convinced the railways to offer overnight trains to bring goods from the national distribution centers to terminal stations for local deliveries by road. Marketing Marketing is based on the principle of satisfying consumers needs. The overall trust of consumers in NestlÃ ©s brands and products comes from a quality image that has been continuously strengthened for over 130 years. NestlÃ © strives to increase this trust through its commitment to environmentally sound business practices. For this reason, NestlÃ ©: opposes short-term, opportunistic green marketing that can mislead the consumer; bases environmental claims in advertising, promotional material, labelling, and corporate communications on solid scientific evidence; and selects materials and printing methods for merchandising materials such as consumer offers, in-store promotions, display materials, leaflet, and printed materials in light of environmental considerations. No Green Marketing NestlÃ © adheres to the Code on Environmental Advertising established by the International Chamber of Commerce. This Code is based on the principle of self-regulation and self-discipline and is intended to assist companies in making responsible use of environmental claims in advertising. Sustainable Development For NestlÃ ©, respect for the environment is part of a broader perspective on sustainable development. NestlÃ © has adhered to The Business Charter for Sustainable Development of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) since its publication in 1991. Measures for environmental protection often trigger beneficial economic and social effects, and vice-versa. Since the Rio Summit in 1992, all of society, be it governments, industry, NGOs or others, have tried to translate the sustainable development concept into reality. As part of this effort, we participate in the work of several organizations dealing with this subject: For example, we are a founding member of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) in Geneva, and we contribute actively in the Working Group Sustainable Development in the City of Vevey. NestlÃ © Working with Communities South Africa NestlÃ © is supporting several community-based organizations in putting sustainable development into practice. Recently, in South Africa, we have given support to Eco Link and LEAP to finance and help manage programs which clean up the environment and improve hygiene in rural areas. The Eco Link project is aimed at providing assistance through education. People are taught to collect litter such as paper, cardboard and cans, which when put in a trench and covered with a compost can then be used to plant vegetables. The litter provides the necessary drainage and moisture retention. The project has dual advantages: it cleans up the environment and provides fresh vegetables for the family, as well as providing an income when surplus food is grown. This program is now being presented to school children who are encouraged to grow small gardens at school. In rural areas water supply is a major problem. Women can spend almost 5 hours a day collecting water for the home. In addition, the springs from which they take the water are often used by animals and can be polluted. NestlÃ © is taking part in a project to help villagers establish a supply of clean water near to home. People were taught how to identify sources of underground springs and to channel rain water and store it in reasonably hygienic conditions. The team taught villagers how to construct a tank to catch the rain water using corrugated iron and wire mesh as a mould which is then plastered with a cement, stone and sand mixture. With a wooden cover on top and a tap at the base the villagers have the means to store clean, drinkable water. Information, Communication Training NestlÃ © provides information on its activities, including those related to the protection of the environment. Within this context, NestlÃ ©: communicates its environmental efforts, both inside and outside the Company, to build understanding concerning its environmental commitment; fosters strong environmental awareness and responsibility among its employees through training programs; and shares environmental information with governments, local communities, industry, consumers and other interested stakeholders. We do this through a wide variety of means. For example, our factory environmental surveys involve thousands of people at all levels, from top management to the factory floor. These practical exercises are reinforced by in-house magazines, specialized newsletters, and videos. To help educate the public, NestlÃ © works with organizations that produce films on environmental issues, sponsor re-forestation programs, or create educational materials for the public. These activities are also important to our role in sustainable development. At our international training center in Switzerland, environmental issues are now a regular part of courses attended by NestlÃ ©s international executives. These efforts are multiplied by countless training sessions organized by our Group companies. Internal communication and training are a priority for NestlÃ ©. As a people-driven company, employees are our most important asset. Thus, we emphasize all measures that help them act in an environmentally responsible manner.