Monday, September 30, 2019

Applying Behavioral Theory to an Innovative School-Based Program for Preventing Underage Drinking and Impaired Driving

Edwena Corley African American Future A Review and Analysis of the American Journal of Health Studies’ Article Applying Behavioral Theory to an Innovative School-Based Program For Preventing Underage Drinking and Impaired Driving Diane Everett September 24, 2012 The article yields to the dangerous reality that underage drinking is a problem. The article further notes that it is also met publicity that peaks and shifts throughout decades.Currently all drunk drivers are being targeted on a national scale, but teen driving is not being addressed head on as it had been previously. One model and theory, the transtheoretical model and the social cognitive theory, were presented within the article in an effort to explain why underage drinking takes place and also why adolescents who have been drinking, regardless of whether or not they are intoxicated, believe that they are able to function and drive at the same rate and with the same control as when they are sober.They also present solutions at interpersonal and community levels. The interpersonal level of change seeks to alter peer influence and the community level promotes positive behaviors such as abstaining from alcohol and denounces negative behaviors such as drinking and driving. The latter is generally presented in the form of real life scenarios. Price et al. (2009) notes that alcohol is the premier drug of choice for adolescents, with the onset of underage drinking occurring, on average, around age 13.In 2001, 13% percent of high school students reported operating a vehicle on one of more occasions after or while drinking alcohol, and 31% reported being a passenger to a peer who had been drinking. These statistics are startling but not as much as the following facts derived from that same year: 3,608 drivers between the ages of 15 and 20 were killed and an additional 337,000 were injured in car crashes. Approximately 25% of drivers between the ages of 16 and 19 who are killed in crashes were legally intoxicated.Peer pressure, the liberal attitudes that parents possess toward underage drinking, and also the concentrated levels of alcohol advertising campaigns have been identified as roots causes of underage drinking. Some parents believe it is acceptable if their children and their friends drink as long as they are purchasing the alcohol for them, and are monitoring their use of the substance in home (Price et al. , 2009). The article mentions a program known as Shattered Dreams sought to weed out the issues or variables that influence underage drinking.The data gathered from this program was used to bring about awareness and offer solutions. The transtheoretical model that the authors propose for the execution of combative solution to the issue of underage drinking and driving has five stages: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. The precontemplation stage deals with the subject being in denial about their problematic behavior, while in the co ntemplation stage the subject realizes that a problem exists, however they have not yet begun to take steps toward correcting the issue(s) at hand.The preparation stage acts a mile marker because it is suggestive of the subject actually making a conscious decision to change their problematic behavior by utilizing their newly acquire skills and continuing to learn new skills that are conducive to more effective and continuous change. The action stage speaks for itself, as the subject then begins to put into motion the new behaviors that will replace the negative behaviors. Maintenance, the final stage of the transtheoretical model, focuses on consistency (Price et al. 2009). Teenagers, more than any other group of people believe that they are invincible, which is why underage drinking and driving is an issue; it is also why sexually transmitted diseases spread rapidly throughout high schools, and why teenage pregnancy is continuing to spiral out of control. Teenagers are often in den ial for multiple reasons; the primary reason being not wanting to feel vulnerable. The admittance of fault makes an individual feel as though they are inferior of someone or something.Admitting that one’s underage drinking is an issue could also mean no longer bring viewed as cool or part of the in crowd, because peer pressure plays a huge role in teenage social interactions. To overcome denial still does not mean that one is ready to go forth in terms of discontinuing their drinking, or drinking and opting to find a designated driver. The ultimate goal of the teenager should be to abstain because they have yet to reach the age of maturity in their state where if they would then be lawful to purchase alcohol.When an underage driver decides to abstain from alcohol altogether because they are aware that it is a crime, they must also realize that drinking and getting behind the wheel of a motor vehicle is hazardous to themselves, and also anyone else with whom they share the roa d. When applying the transtheoretical model to underage drinking and driving, precontemplation occurs when the underage person realizes that they are endangering the lives of many, but they still drink due to both obvious and unforeseen reasons (i. e. peer pressure and/or undiagnosed depression).If the adolescent suffers from depression that is unfounded to a healthcare professional, they may choose to participate in other problematic behaviors which cause them to be further engulfed in a lifestyle that will prove to be even more complicated to change. The contemplation stage may be reached when something monumental transpires, such as a close friend dying in a car accident because they too chose to drink and drive. This stage brings about a sense of urgency to change, be it brought on by fear or a true desire to change.Whatever the matter, the individual will benefit if they are willing to take the steps to help themselves. When undergoing the preparation stage the at-risk adolesce nt may seek help from a parent by asking them to set up an appointment with a therapist, depending on the severity of the alcohol related behaviors. If the drinking has reached a very reckless stage then the adolescent may meet with their parent and a healthcare professional to discuss being admitted to an institution. The action stage would consist of the teen actually going to a session of therapy.Furthermore, if the therapist proposes that the client also attend alcoholic anonymous (AA) meetings, they would be wise to attend as it compliments their treatment. If the teen is aware that they need to be in an alcohol treatment facility they would follow through with their plan to be admitted on their admit date. The most important part of the action stage is the maintenance stage because they go hand in hand. Attending only one therapy session and one AA meeting will not help or heal the issue. To be consistent with one’s treatment insures far more belief in oneself to abstai n for newly introduced reasons.The maintenance stage within an alcohol treatment facility is both simple and complex in nature. While in the facility the professionals house therein will see to it that mandatory sobriety is maintained, but the tricky part is remaining abstinent upon one’s release from the institution. The way that the social cognitive theory (SCT) fits into this model is simple. It climbs through all of the stages, rearranging the social aspects of it and calling for a sense of initiative in maintaining self-efficacy. According to Bandura (1986) and Price et al. 2009) social cognitive theory (SCT) assumes that people, their behavior, and their environments interact continuously and that specific mediators facilitate behavioral change. Thus if peer pressure is the root of underage drinking, then modifying of social spheres is necessary, but due to the self-efficacy aspect, it is the prerogative of the subject or adolescent to denounce troublesome friendships a nd establish new healthy ones. It is in no way possible to undergo treatment and continue to hang out with peers who drink and drive.Even if the new-found abstinent teen continues to act as a passenger to the intoxicated party, they may lose their lives in a fatal accident as a result. The specific mediators that are to encourage the behavioral evolution of the subject would be the aforementioned healthcare professions, parents, or a combination of both. While drinking and driving will more than likely continue to be a problem the ages, the best way to tackle it is to bring about a sense of enlightenment and urgency among teens.This has been done through preliminary findings that are indicative of improved student awareness of the risks and consequences of underage drinking and driving and suggested that students' expectations about alcohol use were less positive after participation in the program (Price et al. , 2009). Furthermore, other programs, in certain states and school distr icts across the nation vehicles that have been involved in drunk driving accidents have been approved for placement outside of high school, on the lawn or next to the signage While some students view it as a scare tactic, it is proven to work for others.The students who are unfazed by it, perceive it as a prop, but the horror is that those same individuals who do not accept the change that is imperative to protect their family, friends and ultimately themselves will more than likely end up dying in one of those cars; thereafter their vehicle or the vehicle of their victim being placed outside someone else’s school. The overall goal of this article was to urge helping professionals to bring to light the issue of underage drinking and driving but approach it as hinting that the student involved have an issue and leaving them to evolve on their own.This is because teenagers generally warm up to positive behavior faster and are more apt to accept participate in said behaviors, if they believe it was their idea, versus it being forced upon them.Bibliography Price, M. A. , Salazar, C. I. , Villarreal, C. L. , Guerra, C. M. , Villarreal, R. , ;amp; Stewart, R. M. (2009). Applying Behavioral Theory To an Innovative School-Based Program For Preventing Underage Drinking and Impaired. American Journal of Health Studies, 24(1), 223-231. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

The fourth amendment and the fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine

The situation that involved Don and Police Officer Jones in State X is a good case study in understanding the concepts involved in the Fourth Amendment, particularly the doctrine of suppression of evidence. In the analysis of the case, one will see that the only crime that Don has committed is driving with an expired license. And for this case, State X has every right to punish him accordingly – with a fine of $100 and 10 days in the county jail. However, it is also important that the fact that the constitution of State X has a clause identical to Amendment IV of the U.S. Constitution, the other evidence obtained by Police Officer Jones in his encounter with Don cannot be used as evidence against Don in any court by reason of the Fruit of the Poisonous Tree Doctrine. This particular doctrine opines that any evidence obtained illegally cannot be used in any court since this is in direct violation of the suspect’s Fourth Amendment. Although Don did commit a violation of law in State X by driving with an expired license, this particular violation does not necessarily warrant a bodily search or even a search of the vehicle —even with the consent of the suspect. In the case of Florida vs. Bostick, we have learned that in the context of investigatory stops and detentions, Police may stop you for any reason, but are not entitled to any information other than your identification nor may they detain you without reasonable suspicion. (Flex Your Rights, 2006) In this particular case, the Police Officer did not have any justifiable or probable cause to frisk Don because the latter was not an immediate or significant threat to the officer nor was there any sign that Don carried any illegal weapon. Perhaps the only reasoning that can be applied by the Police Officer that might justify his stop and frisk action in this case is the tip or report given to him that a lone male driving in a car with an out-of-state license would be coming through town, traveling in an easterly direction, and carrying an illegal shipment of heroin. Just the same, the Police Officer went over and beyond his call and duty by frisking Don and subjecting him to a warrant less search on account of a traffic violation. Furthermore, if there was any evidence that can be used against Don in this particular case is anything that is visible to eye of the Police Officer. The marijuana that was seized inside the car cannot be used by the State in convicting Don simply because it was obtained thru an illegal search. While it is given that Don consented to the search, the court should rule that the burden is on the prosecution to prove the voluntariness of the consent and awareness of the right of choice. (Find Law, 2006) In this particular case, I am of the opinion that State X must rule in favor of Don and suppress all evidence obtained in the encounter between Don and Police Officer Jones since the search was done illegally and all evidence acquired as a result thereof should be considered inadmissible. Hence, the charges of illegal possession of marijuana and other dangerous drugs should be dropped. At best, Don should be convicted of driving with expired license –a direct violation of State X’s law– and should be netted the appropriate penalty. References: Find Law, 2006: US Constitution, Fourth Amendment [online] Available at: [cited on: June 11, 2006] Flex Your Rights, 2006: Fourth Amendment Supreme Court Cases [online] [cited on: June 11, 2006] Â  

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Game Wardens Essay

1. Why do most game wardens decide to become game wardens? Most guys become game wardens because they like the outdoors and fish and wildlife in general. In my case, it ran in the family as your Grandad, Larry Glover, was a game warden. 2. What kind of things does a game warden do? Can the job be physically demanding? Game wardens patrol for fish and wildlife violations and conduct investigations regarding these offenses, both state and federal. Some game wardens also conduct biological duties such as fish creel censuses, deer/elk/antelope population surveys, and migratory bird aerial surveys. The typical state game warden serves in one county and is responsive to all fish and wildlife issues there-in. A federal game warden can be in charge of an entire region of a state. I was never home for very long periods because there was so many duties I had to fulfill. The job is demanding both physically and mentally. I could be â€Å"breaking the ice† to check duck hunters in the frozen marsh one day and wearing a coat and tie to testify in court the next day. I told the young agents that I supervised, â€Å"It’s not a job but a way of life. † 3. If a man wants to become a game warden, how should he best prepare? Is there a difference of preparation on the state and federal level? Any majors he should pursue in college? Most game wardens I know majored in Wildlife Management or Criminal Justice while in college. My degree was in Wildlife Management. Most states now require a degree for entry level game warden positions. Federal game wardens usually have several years of state experience prior to coming on board. 4. How competitive is it to get a job as a game warden? Is the level of competition different on the state and federal level? The competition is extremely tough both at the state and federal level. Even when I came on as a New Mexico Game Warden back in 1971, it was tough. I waited for several months after applying to several states and only got on because my dad knew the New Mexico Director of Game & Fish. Even then, I started out as a lowly beaver trapper and worked my way up to district game warden supervisor. I left the New Mexico State Game and Fish Department for federal game warden service in 1976. 5. Any tips on getting hired as a game warden? Get your degree, take any position available in the game department, work any law enforcement job available while waiting (police officer, deputy sheriff, etc.) for the experience, get to know your local game warden, and don’t violate any fish and game laws. Tom McKay, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Special Agent 6. What is the average salary for a game warden on the state and federal level? Oklahoma state game wardens are paid very poorly. It’s about $30K/year. Texas wardens are paid much better- about $52K/year. On the federal level, Special Agents with the US Fish & Wildlife Service usually start as GS-7 on the federal pay scale, which is about $40K/year. Plus you get Law Enforcement Availability Pay (LEAP) which is 25% of your base grade or about another $10K. You can work your way up to Journeyman Special Agent. It’s a GS-12 on the federal pay scale, which is about $100K/year. 7. What is the best part of the job? The best part of the job is the field work and camaraderie with fellow officers, both state and federal. These guys become your â€Å"brothers† with friendships that last a lifetime. 8. What is the worst part of the job? The worst part of the job is the administrative requirements such as personnel and investigative reports. You may work a week on a case and several weeks preparing it for prosecution. Also, the supervisory responsibilities (if you go that high) are trying and time-consuming. Always hated that aspect of my job. 9. What is the biggest misconception people have about the job? The biggest misconception is that game wardens spend all their time hunting and fishing. The good wardens and agents have no time for this as they are in the field managing the other nimrods out there during hunting season. I hunted and fished much more before I became a game warden, not at all after I became one. 10. What is the work/family balance like? As you observed, Brett, the work/family balance is horrible. Never home, always on the road or in the field on a case. However, that’s how I grew up with my Dad and your Mom with her father (Editor’s Note: My mom’s dad was a forester). So, we were used to it, but it doesn’t make it right. I still regret the time I missed with you boys and your sister. 11. Are there ways to move-up in the job, or in other words, what is the hierarchy like? The promotion potential is great in federal service. If you do a good job and are willing to move, the promotion potential is likely. However, anything higher then a Journeyman Special Agent (GS-12) usually requires a 2-year stint in Washington, DC headquarters as a desk agent. I never chose to do this, but was lucky to obtain the Resident Agent In Charge (RAC) position, which increased my pay to a GS-13. That’s the position I had when I retired. The hierarchy for the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Law Enforcement is: Special Agent, Resident Agent in Charge, Assistant Special Agent in Charge, Special Agent in Charge, and Chief of Law Enforcement (along with several division chiefs under him).

Friday, September 27, 2019

Business law Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Business law - Case Study Example Based on the second case, Buchanan County and Davis also committed negligent retention of Batz as an employee despite several complaints of misconduct against him (Batz). Evidence presented in the second case included recommendations by Lieutenant Furness, to Davis, proposing termination of Batz as a canine handler. Evidence by Captain Hepke also proposed disciplinary actions against Batz. Davis disregarded all the complaints about Batz as submitted by different parties. On the first instance, a jury returned a ruling that favored Kiesau and offered her $ 160, 000 as compensation. For the second instance, the court ruled against Kiesau by dismissing the negligent supervision and retention claims against Buchanan County & Davis. Argument: Under the laws on negligent hiring and retention applicable in Iowa State, Buchanan County & Davis, were liable for wrongful conduct by facilitating Bazt’s tortious actions through failure to act on several recommendations and complaints. Issues: Were the Republic of France and the French lines liable for the resultant injuries owing to obvious laxity in rules and regulation on smoking at the port loading and offloading bay backing constitution of approximate cause? Rule: If the subsequent action, force, or occurrences that are evident as direct contributors to the injuries suffered by the plaintiff were not probable, many juries hold that it is an intervening cause. Subsequently it pardons the defendant of liability from dangers that trace back directly from the superseding cause. Complainant the US government reason that the French cargo ship crew did not task up, the complainant argue that the crew should have foreseen risk of explosion from the transported FGAN, which is in normal regulations set by the governing bodies on transportation of hazardous materials deem fire hazard. The ammonium nitrate gas is explosive if exposed to combusting materials. With this knowledge,

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Stage 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Stage 2 - Essay Example One of the requirements of this response is that the database must be regularly updated upon arrival of a new customer. Employees should also provide time and day when they can offer the best to customers. This process of linking customers and employee is facilitated by Myra just by a click of button leading to direct contact of top management and clients. Donald H. Sheldon (2006) notes that, â€Å"No role that is important to ensure success of a master scheduling than that of top management.† In conclusion, UMUC haircut is transforming organization input to output using business processes to develop a scheduling system. Waite (2008) observed that this conversion leads to effective and efficient customer needs satisfaction. In addition to this, UMUC haircut customers can be sent personalized messages using phone number and notified on the availability of the service. According to Turaban, Volonino and Wood (2013), the use of recent technology such as tablets and ipads has contributed to fast reporting process and cost cutting of expenses broadband. This will highly contribute to the reduction of customer delays in premises resulting to attraction of more customers thus leading to a competitive

Geology Volcanoes&Earthquake Assignment21 Assignment

Geology Volcanoes&Earthquake Assignment21 - Assignment Example Because of this, the P-wave shadow zone occurs and seismometers do not record the initial waves. 9. Magnitude refers to the measurement of the energy that an earthquake releases and it may be given through Ritcher scale. The lowest scale is 2.5 or less, which is normally not felt, but is recorded by a seismograph. Scale of 2.5 to 5.4 means minor damage and can be felt most of the time. Scale of 5.5 to 6.0 will cause damage to structures while scale of 6.1 to 6.9 will cause damage in an area with heavy population. Major earthquakes record scales of 7.0 to 7.9 while a magnitude of 8.0 or higher can destroy an entire community located near the epicenter. 10. The intensity of an earthquake means a measure of the earthquake’s power of shaking. The intensity is measured by the Mercalli scale that represents the damage or effect that the earthquake causes. Intensity can range from I to XII given in Roman numerals. 11. Intensity of an earthquake varies for various reasons. It decreases with distance of the earthquake. Intensity also depends on the shape of the building, foundation, or mode of construction. Intensity also varies depending on the near surface or regional geologic conditions. 20. Vertical evacuation refers to a method of evacuation preferred for helping people out of the area affected by an earthquake or Tsunami. It involves structures that resemble artificial hills such as a ramp or a lighthouse. A vertical evacuation used in the case of a Tsunami allows the waves to pass through the lighthouse or ramp while victims seek refuge in top floors. 21. Things that ought to be in an emergency supply kit subsume a flashlight, food, water, weather radio, spare batteries, first aid kit, medical items and seven-day supply of medications, personal hygiene items, multi-purpose tool, hygiene and sanitation items, cell phone with charging system, contact information, emergency

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Business Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Business - Assignment Example In the model, when the expected returns do not meet the expected returns, then the investment should not be undertaken. For this reason, Capital Asset Price Model focuses on price and investment. Arbitrage Pricing Theory is a model that bases its idea that returns of an asset can be predicted using the relationship that exist between the asset and the common risk factors. This theory also defines the price where an asset that is not well priced is likely to be. The model is always viewed as a substitute to the capital asset pricing classical. For this reason, Arbitrage Pricing Theory is a model that has more elastic assumption requirement (Hodrick, Ng and Song Mueller, 76). Multi-Factor Model of Risk and Return is a financial model based on multiple factors. The multiple factors occur during its computation when explaining the market phenomenon and equilibrium’s asset prices. The factor can be used in explaining either an individual securities or a portfolio of securities. The model achieves such objective by comparing two or more factors in analyzing relationship between variables and the resulting performance of the securities. Capital Asset Price Model is a model that describes the relationship that occurs between the expected returns and the risks that are involved. On the other hand, Arbitrage Pricing Theory is a model that which is based on the idea that returns of an asset can be predicted using the relationship that exist between the asset and the common risk factors. The multi-factor model is based on multiple factors during its computation when explaining market phenomenon and equilibrium asset prices. This is an international bond that is issued in a foreign country whose value is stated in their respective currency. Eurobonds are issued by international organization and categories according to the currency in

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Strategic Marketing in Uncertainty Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Strategic Marketing in Uncertainty - Essay Example The modern approach to marketing activities is changing its emphasis from the traditional marketing mix (product, price, place, and promotion) to the conception of relationship marketing. The practicability and flexibility of the relationship marketing approach have led to the rapid evolution of this concept in the modern marketing activities. Veloutsou et al. (2002, p433) also assert that, "it is currently acknowledged that RM represents a paradigm shift in marketing". Relationship marketing approach emphasises on mutually beneficial relationships between the organisation and the other members of the environment so as to create long-term ties among these groups. Gronroos (1994, p355) posits that relationship marketing "is to establish, maintain, and enhance relationships with customers and other partners, at a profit, so that the objectives of the parties involved are met. This is achieved by a mutual exchange and fulfilment of promises". Hence, relationship marketing focuses on fostering the mutual relationship of an organisation with its customers, suppliers and other firms in order to meet the objectives of all the parties as they enter into an exchange with the company. In the modern dynamic environment, companies are no longer seen as indifferent from the influence of other parties in the market viz., the customers, suppliers, competitors etc; rather the modern companies need to interact with all these parties in order to maintain long-term relationship chain that is bound to satisfy all of them. This is what was found to be lacking in the traditional approach of the marketing mix. Andersen (2001, p167) illuminates that, "marketing practitioners and scholars are abandoning the marketing mix approach as it does not justify the complex interaction and information exchange processes between organizational buyers and sellers". In the simplest form, relationship marketing has gained popularity as a post-modern approach to marketing over the traditional concept of 4Ps because of its ability to rationalise the existing interaction and relationship of a company with other members of the environment. The fact that makes relationship marketing more helpful for marketers is the approach of creating a bond between the seller and the buyers. Not only the seller but also the buyers take active part in fostering this relationship with each other. Company nurtures this association by satisfying consumers every time, while the buyers enhance this relationship by making repeated purchases. On the other hand, the traditional marketing mix relies on the seller's part to conduct marketing activities. Gronroos (1997, p327) emphasises this point as that, "the marketing mix makes the seller the active part and the buyer and consumer passive. No personalized relationship with the producer and marketer of a product is supposed to exist, other than with professional sales representatives" Another important aspect of relationship marketing paradigm is that it is flexible enough to be beneficial for the company in all conditions prevailing in the

Monday, September 23, 2019

Cost and Price Analysis for Interagency Agreements Article

Cost and Price Analysis for Interagency Agreements - Article Example In the first section of the article, the author describes details about the cost and pricing analysis, and the various aspects of its differentiation. The author clearly marks that price is the birds-eye view while cost can be understood as the element by element review. Alongside, the author also states that price analysis can be used singly while cost analysis has to always involve price analysis. The ultimate outcome, as the author states, is to have the justification of fairness and reasonability of the analyses. The author also puts forth the idea for the sources of objective data coming from Historical Costs/Prices, Catalog or Market prices, Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs), Government Estimates, and Government Costs/Prices. Alongside this, further information regarding the value and program value has been given that clarifies any thoughts of the utility of the cost and price program. This section of the article gives a very good idea of the importance associated with the c ost and price analysis. The second section of the article is very much specific to the cost and pricing activity and practices in the inter-agency agreements. The article states that it is a common practice to have the price divided into cost components and have each justified with a written statement. The generally and widely used cost components include personnel, travel, equipment, supplies, contractual, construction, other costs, and the indirect costs.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Marketing Mix Essay Example for Free

Marketing Mix Essay Broadly speaking, in order to maximise profits, different firms use distinct tools to perform strategy and decisions, such as SWOT analysis, PESTEL analysis and marketing mix analysis. In terms of the marketing mix, as an important concept in the subject of business studies, it refers to â€Å"a balance between the four main elements of marketing [is] needed to carry out the marketing strategy. It consists of the ‘4ps’: product, price, promotion and place† (MarcouseÃŒ  and Surridge et al., 2011:141). Firms can build an effective marketing strategy by using the marketing mix as a tool, and it is possible that business will fail if the marketing mix is not correct. The aim of the essay is to analyse elements of the marketing mix. Initially, it will discuss four elements, which are the product, price, place and promotion respectively. Then, it will evaluate the most vital component in the marketing mix, which is the product. The first component of the marketing mix is the product. â€Å"A product is a good or service produced by a business or organization, and made available to the public for consumption† (Ashwin and Merrills et al., 2008). Each product has a different feature, which could be the unique selling points of them. Roams and Cota (2008:152) attempt to define this term is, â€Å"A unique selling point (USP) is a short statement that explains why a customer should buy from you instead of your competitorsin. For example, Apple Corporation has a unique and independent operation system for their iPhone. It has been argued that there are three levels of product, first of which is core or generic product (Levitt, 1986:361). This is the basic and general physical product, in other words, it is the product that has minimum features and the consumer would expect it to have. In a microwave oven example, it should have enough space inside to put food and it would be expected to work effectively. The second level of the product is known as actual or tangible product. This is, touchable and physical property of the product. Young (2008:130) suggests this level of product will contain the product’s name, style, brand name, label, packaging and quality level. This level of product provides a material and a clearer image of the product to customers. The next and last level is called augmented product. Leader and Kyritsis (1990:12) explain this product provides privileges and additional services to the consumer; it also can reflect the differentiation of the product. For instance, services such as free delivery, discounts and additional purchases. The second element of the marketing mix is price. There are two main factors can determine the price of product, which is price elasticity and pricing strategy respectively. Blythe (2012:154) examines the elasticity of demand will illustrate that different categories have different extent of sensitivity when the price changes. Consequently, it could help firms make a better decision when they set the price. Thompson and Machin (2003:65) support that, â€Å"a business must know how responsive their products are to price changes so that they can assess the potential impact of, say, special offers or a price increase†. The next factor is the pricing strategy. Also, it is more imperative than price elasticity when firms make their price decisions. Firms use a serious of pricing strategies, however, the pricing method of cost plus is used most commonly, which is the basic form of all pricing decisions. It refers to a business calculates the average cost and then add a mark-up to the final selling price. Ashwin and Merrills (2008:347) point out another price strategy is called discriminatory pricing; this means a firm set different price for different target groups. As the description from Thompson and Machin (2003:65), discriminatory price refers to â€Å"different price is charged to different group people at different times†. For instance, a cinema charges a different price for students and adults. Besides, it charges different for daytime and evening showings as well. In addition, psychology-pricing strategy is also used quite frequently in supermarkets. For example, Morrison’s sell a bottle of milk  £1.99 rather than  £2, hence customers will perceive the price as being lower. Levitt (1986) argues discriminatory pricing mainly relies on emotional responses from the consumer. The third component in the marketing mix is the place. It concerns the way in which a product is distributed. Stimpson (2005:16) points out â€Å"the ‘place’ decision involves making the product or service available to  consumers in the most appropriate way†. Distribution channel as the most important factor could affect the decision of the place. There are numbers of factors can determine how the product is distributed. Blythe (2012:173) suggests one of them is the marketing aim. The increasing scale raised enterprise intends to expand as wide a distribution as possible. Furthermore, legal restrictions should be regarded as well. Stone (2001) states there are numerous products are not permitted to sell in some places. For instance, it is forbidden to sell the alcohol at the petrol station. In general, direct distribution, retailers, wholesalers and agent are four core channels of distribution. Direct distribution is the producers sell products to customers directly without intermediaries. Blythe (2012:175) explains this, â€Å"direct distribution channels are typical of personal services such as hairdressing†. For retailers, it is an organization that offers goods to customers. Tesco and Wal-Mart, for example. In addition, Koter (2005) describes that, in many market, wholesalers act as a link between producers and consumers. Wholesalers usually buy goods from manufacturers then sell goods to the final consumers or retailers. In contrast, agents do not actually purchase goods; they only help manufacturers to sell. Thompson and Machin (2003:80) claim that, â€Å" agent never actually owns a product, they usually connect buyers and sellers and manage the transfer of the good†. The final element in the marketing mix is promotion. Promotion is not only advertising but also a communication tool between producers and consumers. â€Å"promotion is about communicating with customers and potential customers† (Ashwin and Merrills et al., 2008:331). Promotion is essential for a product because it is able to increase the demand for products. Young (2008) suggests promotion can raise emotion, concern or awareness for products or issues. In addition, promotion can protect and preserve the market share as well. The methods of above the line and below the line are two main types methods of promotion. As for above the line promotion, it refers to a firm uses the advertising media but does not has direct control. The most recognizable  face of advertising is television. Because of it can provide the introduction of product with colorful images. Wolinski and Coates (2008:373) state that, â€Å"television has the advantage of being memorable, as it can present both moving images and sound†. Thompson and Machin (2003:74) examines the below the line promotion includes promotional media over which the firm has control. For example, personal selling, it means a salesman or a sales team who regularly visits consumers in person. Having introduced each element of the marketing mix, the essay will now evaluate the most crucial element in the marketing mix – product. There are two principal reasons for product as the most important element in the marketing mix. First of all, product as the key component makes the entirely process of the link between customers and producers possible. Amount of sales promotion and price reduction will not help an enterprise to achieve their market target if the product is not appropriate and attractable. Stimpson (2005:24) agrees with this view that, â€Å" a balance and integrated mix is essential, but without a product that offers customers real and distinctive benefits, even the best-laid marketing plans can be wasted†. In the mean time, Kazmi (2007), in her work, Marketing Management, suggests that the product or service is the most vital element, without a good product, you have nothing. Furthermore, Adcock and Halborg (2001) sustains that the attention of customers will be attracted if a firm can develop a high quality product, hence, the profits that the firm makes will increase. As a result, the pote ntial for business success is significantly enhanced. The second reason is that products enable to decide a firm’s profits, sales, market share, image, reputation and stature. Additionally, product can also determine the scope and direction of a company’s activity. Product acts a heart in the whole marketing mix. Most of the scholars support that view. Stimpson (2005:24) points out that, â€Å"the product is usually considered to be the most important component of the marketing mix†. Stone (2001) believed that in most case the product itself is the key to a successful marketing mix. However, there will be instances that when other components dominate  the marketing mix. Wolinski and Coates (2008:346) argues that, â€Å" At a festival, only one type of bottled water might be available, so the place is the most important factor†. In contrast, Baker (1991) claims when consumer with limited money might choose the product with the lower price, this is due to consumer has insufficient resources to purchase additi onal products. In this case, price is the most significant component. To recapitulate, the essay has introduced and analysed four elements product, price, place and promotion in the marketing mix. Marketing mix as a tool is able to help firms make efficient business plan and strategy. Each element is playing a very vital role in the marketing mix. Furthermore, the essay has identified the product is the most crucial part since the product is the key component linking between the producers and consumers. It can be concluded that all the elements in the marketing are essential and necessary, while in the most case, product is the most essential component in the marketing mix. An enterprise should coordinate and integrate the four elements so that the firm can build an efficient marketing strategy and achieves more profits as possible. Reference list: Ashwin, A., Merrills, S. and Thompson, R. 2008. Collins biz/ed AS business studies. London: Collins Educational. Baker, M.(1991) Marketing, An Introductory Text, 5th edn. London: Macmillan Education Ltd. Blythe, J. 2012. Essentials of marketing. 5th edn. Harlow: Pearson. Felina C. Young and Cristobal M. Pagoso. 2008. Principles of Marketing 1st edn. Manila: Red Book Store. Kotler, P. 2005. Principles of marketing. 4th edn. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall/FinancialTimes. Leader, W. G. and Kyritsis, N. 1990. Fundamentals of marketing. New edn. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. Levitt,T.: 1986. The Marketing Imagination. New York: Free express. MarcouseÃŒ , I., Surridge, M. and Gillespie, A. 2011. Business studies for A level. Abingdon, Oxon [UK]: Hodder Education. Ramos, A. and Cota, S. 2008. Search Engine Marketing. New York: McGraw-Hill. Stimpson, P. 2005. Place. Business Review, 11:4-16 Stimpson, P. 2004. The Product Decision. Business Review, 11:1-24 Stone, P. 2001. Make Marketing Work for you. Oxford: How To Books. Thompson, R. and Machin, D. 2003. AS Business Studies.1st edn. London: Collins Educational Wolinski, J. and Coates, G. 2008. AQA AS business studies. 2nd edn. Deddington, Oxfordshire: Philip Allan Updates. a

Saturday, September 21, 2019

What Is Elitism And Anti Elitism Politics Essay

What Is Elitism And Anti Elitism Politics Essay Elites derive from a fundamental and universal fact of social life, namely, the absence in any large collectivity of a robust common interest. While it is true that most large collectivities rest on a base of social and cultural understandings, these tend to be ambiguous and rough. The satisfactions some of their members seek are only partly compatible with the satisfactions sought by other members. Members constantly claim statuses and other valued goods for themselves, their kin, friends, and allies that other members do not accept as fully legitimate. Acceding to these claims is often more a matter of judging that it is dangerous or inexpedient to resist them than of recognizing that the persons and groups making the claims have some right to do so. In large collectivities common interest is fairly minimal and must always be supplemented by authoritative decisions that dissenters and opponents dare not or find it inexpedient to resist. Elites may be defined as persons who, by virt ue of their strategic locations in large or otherwise pivotal organizations and movements, are able to affect political outcomes regularly and substantially. Put differently, elites are persons with the organized capacity to make real political trouble without being promptly repressed. They consist not only of prestigious and established leaders top politicians, important businessmen, high-level civil servants, senior military officers but also, in varying degrees in different societies, relatively transitory and less individually known leaders of mass organizations such as trade unions, important voluntary associations, and politically consequential mass movements. Counter-elites are subsumed by this definition because they clearly have the organized capacity, although perhaps mainly through negation, to affect political outcomes regularly and substantially. It is important to stress that this is a limited and specifically political definition of elites. It is restricted to perso ns who are at the top of the pyramid or pyramids of political, economic, and social power (Putnam, 1976). It does not consider all those in a society who enjoy high occupational, educational, or cultural statuses to be elites in a political sense. As defined, national political elites are not large in number. Geraint Parry (1969/2005) has observed that the entire British elite could be seated with ease in a soccer stadium. Using strict organizational and positional criteria, as well as data about sizes of elite networks, some researchers have estimated that the national political elite in the United States numbers perhaps ten thousand persons (Dye, 2002), maybe half this number in medium-sized countries like France (Dogan, 2003), Australia (Higley, Deacon Smart, 1979) or Germany (Hoffmann-Lange, 1992), and about fifteen hundred in small countries like Denmark (Christiansen, Mà ¶ller Togeby, 2001) and Norway (Gulbrandsen and Engelstad, 2002). This last estimate of fewer than two t housand persons is probably the most plausible for all countries during the early modern historical period and all but the most populous developing countries today Elitism: Elitism is the belief or attitude that those individuals who are considered members of the elite a select group of people with outstanding personal abilities, intellect, wealth, specialized training or experience, or other distinctive attributes are those whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously or carry the most weight; whose views and/or actions are most likely to be constructive to society as a whole; or whose extraordinary skills, abilities or wisdom render them especially fit to govern [1]. Alternatively, the term elitism may be used to describe a situation in which power is concentrated in the hands of the elite. Opposed to elitism are anti-elitism, populism, and the political theory of pluralism. Elite theory is the sociological or political science analysis of elite influence in society elite theorists regard pluralism as a utopian ideal. Elitism may also refer to situations in which an elite individual assumes special privileges and responsibilities in t he hope that this arrangement will benefit humanity. At times, elitism is closely related to social class and what sociologists call social stratification. Members of the upper classes are sometimes, though inaccurately, known as the social elite. The term elitism is also sometimes misused to denote situations in which a group of people claiming to possess high abilities or simply an in-group or cadre grant themselves extra privileges at the expense of others. This debased form of elitism may be described as discrimination (1) The belief: that government ought in principle, always and everywhere, to be confined to elites. Rarely a worked-out doctrine in its own right, more often a piece of unexamined value judgement, or a view which follows from some more general argument in political philosophy, as for example in Platos Republic. (2) The belief: that government is in practice confined to elites; that, following a maxim of Hume, ought implies can (in other words, that there is no point in saying that government ought to be controlled by the people if in practice it cannot); and that we might just as well accept what we are bound to have anyhow. These views are especially associated with Mosca and with Pareto in the early twentieth century, and with Schumpeter in mid-century. All three writers shade into elitism in sense 1 because they go on to produce normative justifications of rule by elites in a democracy. However, their earlier arguments do not in themselves imply that if democratic control of the government were somehow achievable it would be undesirable. (3) The belief: that government is in practice confined to elites; that this has often been justified by arguments from Plato or Schumpeter; but that this is undesirable because elite rule is in practice rule on behalf of the vested interests of (usually economic) elites. Defining of elite (Elitism): There is no single definition of the concept of elite. What the literature reflects is divergent array of definition of the term. The lack of a unified meaning of elite emanates from the scope an limit of those include in the spectrum of elite rank, given the universality of the accepted meaning of the term itself. Therefore, various definitions arise and different models and constructs develop as frames of analysis. Despite the differences in definitions, all elite theorists seem to agree on one thing: the powerful position of a small group of individuals or groups who either shape or influence decisions that affect national outcomes. Thus, all actors occupying key positions in the political, economic, military, governmental, cultural, and administrative institutions and organizations are considered members of the elite because they affect the national outcomes. According to Mosca (1939), In all societies, from less developed to the most advanced, tow classes of people appear, a class that rules and a class that is ruledà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ The class that rules is few, whereas the more numerous class, is directed at and controlled by the first, in a manner that is now more or less legal, now more or less arbitrary and violent. (50) The few elites acquire a stake in preserving the organization and their position in it. This motive gives leaders a perspective different from that of the organizations members. An elite is then inevitable in any social organization Dye an zeigler,1993: 2-3) To Michels (1959), he who says organization, says oligarchy (70), and government is always government by the few, whether in the name of the few, the one, or the many(Lasswell and Lerner, 1952:7) According to Gwen Moore (1979), the term political elite refer to persons who by virtue of their institutional positions have a high potential to influence national policy making therefore, it includes politicians, government officials, and the leaders of various interest groups, which attempt to influence the allocation of values in socity(Moore,1979;see also Parry, 1969:13) more clearly, Higley and Burton (1989) define national elites as persons who are able, by virtue of their authoritative positions in powerful organizations and movements of whatever kind, to affect national political outcomes regularly and substantially(18) In defense of elite theory, and signifying the importance of the organizational context of elites, Higley, Burton, and Field (1973) maintain that they have consistently followed Weber and Movement leaders are elites only to the extent that the movements are bureaucratically structured and thus powerful on a sustained basis. Those leaders then can affect political outcomes regularly and substantially (Higley, Burton, and Field, 1990) Dogan and Higley (1996) define elites as the few hundred or at most few thousand persons who head the major institutions, organizations, and movements in a society and who are therefore able to impel or impede political decisions on a regular basis. Elites consist, therefore, of the top leaders of political parties, governmental bureaucracies, large and /or pivotally located business firms and large unions, the military, the media, professional, religious, educational, and other major organizations, as well as the leaders of powerful interest groups and mass movements. Because these definitions are too broad, inclusive, and confusing, they are subject to interpretations and challenges, such as the one offered by Alan Knight (1996) in his extensive and provocative analysis of elite theory. To Hunter (1959), elites are the top leaders who shape and control the power structure, whereas to Mills (1956), they are the power elite, Composed of men whose positions enable them to transcend the ordinary environments of ordinary men and women: they are in positions to make decisions having major consequences Whether they do or do not make such decisions is less important than the fact that they do occupy such pivotal positions: their failure to act, their failure to make decisions, is itself an act that is often of greater consequence than the decisions they do make, for they are in command of the major hierarchies and organizations of modern society. They run the big corporations. They run the machinery of the state and claim its prerogatives. They direct the military establishment. They occupy the strategic command posts of the social structure, in which are now centered the effective means of the power and the wealth and the celebrity which they enjoy. The power elite are not solitary rulers. Advisors and consultants, spokesmen and opinion makers, are often the captains of their higher thought and decision. Imme diately below the elite are the professional politicians of the middle levels of power, in the Congress and in the pressure groups, as well as among the new and old upper classes of town and city and region Mills definition of the concept of power elite is both clear and comprehensive in that it includes not only the macro elites, but also the micro elites who operate the organizations and institutions controlled by the power elite. This view is shared by the more contemporary elite theorists who focus in their studies on interlocking organizational networks of the elites. Despite the common tenets emphasized in these definitions, the following perspectives on elite theory may be discerned. Types of Elite: Following the ideas of Machiavelli, he distinguished two main types of elite group: a. Lion elites who were able to rule by force (for example, military regimes). b. Fox elites who were able to rule by manipulation (for example, liberal democratic regimes) Characteristics of the elite Attributes that identify elite vary; personal achievement may not be essential. Elite attributes include: Rigorous study of, or great accomplishment within, a particular field of study A long track record of competence in a demanding field An extensive history of dedication and effort in service to a specific discipline (e.g., medicine or martial arts) A high degree of accomplishment, training or wisdom within a given field An elite fighter, for example, is one whose training, resolve, and experience in combat place him at the top of his field. Most nations employ some kind of Special Forces made up of elite soldiers whose training goes far beyond what is typical for the average soldier. The academic elite, on the other hand, comprises only those professors whose studies are likely to shape their respective disciplines for years to come. One synonym for elite might be world class, indicating that the individual in question is capable of participating effectively at the very highest levels of his or her chosen discipline. Anti-elitism Elitism as a pejorative term The term elitism or the title elitist can be used resentfully [2] by a person who is not a member of an elite, or is a member but resents the elite position or uses it in a condescending or cynical manner in order to ridicule or criticize practices which discriminate on the basis of ability or attributes. Often, accusing someone of being an elitist is used as a pejorative remark meant to imply that the person in question does not in fact belong to an elite, but is merely a hanger-on. Sometimes, particularly in political circles, it is used simply as a generic insult, with little to no literal basis for the terms use beyond a general animosity towards the target. Elitism versus egalitarianism Elitism can be interpreted as encouraging the exclusion of large numbers of people from positions of privilege or power. Thus, many populists seek the social equality of Egalitarianism, Populism, Socialism, or Communism. They may also support affirmative action, social security, luxury taxes, and increasingly high progressive taxes for the wealthiest members of society. All of these measures seek to reduce the gap of power between the elite and those who are not elite. Elitism versus pluralism Pluralism is the belief that public policy decisions should be (or, descriptively, are) the result of the struggle of forces exerted by large populations (workers, consumers, retirees, parents, etc.) directly or indirectly in the policy-making process. This is contrasted with elitism which is the belief that decisions should be (or are) being made essentially according to the interests or ideas of elites. There is a difference, however, between the idea of being more able to fulfill a political task and the actual knowing of the specialization and specifications of each corporation or other group among the general population and its particular hopes and needs, which suggests a way of cooperation which has been recently put into practice in some countries between politicians and groups of citizens which have some remote resemblances to Corporatism. Elitism and education Elitism in the context of education is the practice of concentrating attention on or allocating funding to the students who rank highest in a particular field of endeavor, with the other students being deemed less capable of achievement or as holding less promise for the societys future. For example, a politician who promotes specialized biochemistry classes for highly intelligent students in an effort to cure diseases might be accused of elitism. Elitism in education could be based upon learning ability, knowledge, or other abilities. An elite school could merely be a wealthy school or an old school. Power elite: A Power Elite, in political and sociological theory, is a small group of people who control a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, and access to decision-making of global consequence. The term was coined by Charles Wright Mills in his 1956 book, The Power Elite. The Power Elite (1956) describes the relationship between political, military, and economic elite (people at the pinnacles of these three institutions), noting that these people share a common world view, 1) the military metaphysic- a military definition of reality, possess 2) class identity- recognizing themselves separate and superior to the rest of society, have 3) interchangeability: i.e. the move within and between the three institutional structures and hold interlocking directorates 4) cooptation/socialization: of prospective new members is done based on how well they clone themselves socially after such elite. Further these elite in the big three institutional orders have an uneasy alliance based upon their co mmunity of interests driven by the military metaphysic, which has transformed the economy into a permanent war economy. In critical work, the US Power elite consists of members of the Business/Corporate Community, Academia, politicians, media editors, military service personnel, and high-profile journalists. From here on, a general form of consensus building and homogenesing of elite members views is eventually achieved. Social Structure forming Power Elite the American way and the American Dream can be defined as that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is a difficult dream for the European upper classes to interpret adequately, and too many of us ourselves have grown weary and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position ([James Truslow Adams, The Epic of America]). However, it has been argued that a relatively fixed group of privileged Americans shape our economy and government solely because of their higher wealth and social status. This idea goes against the original American way, and begins a new one. This new American way involves a fixed group of Americans, called the power elite. The power elite stems from many groups forming into one: Corporate Community: This group includes rich corporations, banks and agribusinesses. These tend to dominate the federal government in Washington. Growth Coalitions: This group includes real estate, construction and land development companies. These tend to dominate the local governments. Both the corporate communities and growth coalitions sometimes will have conflicting ideas and competition between each other over profits and investment opportunities. However, they tend to have the same policies affecting their general welfare. These groups have the ability to organize and defend their interests due to their large wealth and income. The owners and managers of these large income producing properties hold a great share of all of the income and wealth in the US. This is more than any other industrial democracy (they are 1% of the entire US population). By holding this share of income, these groups clearly create the dominating class in the US. This dominating class has name of its own: Corporate Rich: This group becomes more of a common social group. They belong to the same social clubs, they vacation at the same summer and winter resorts and they send their children to the same private schools. They create the [social upper class]. Place Entrepreneurs: This group tends to be filled with members of the growth coalition. They sell locations and buildings. By doing this, they become the local upper class in their respective cities. Because of this, they tend to mingle with the corporate rich in vacation/resort settings or educational settings. Policy Formation Network: This group tends to be filled with members from both the corporate rich and the place entrepreneurs/growth coalition. They develop and direct non-profit organizations, charity foundations and policy discussion groups. As these non-profit groups join at a national level, they are able to create policies for local communities and national level city development organizations. All of these group s take a part in creating the ultimate power elite, the leadership group for the corporate rich as a whole. Power Elite: This group tends to have corporate owners join with top level executives in the corporate community and the policy formation network. This group tends to be the wealthiest in the US and use this group title to create policies for the US to use on a national level. However, it is clear that not all people in the power elite group are involved in governance. Some simply enjoy the lifestyle wealth can bring. Characteristics of the Power Elite: According to C. Wright Mills, among the best known power-elite theorists, the governing elite in the United States draws its members from three areas: (1) the highest political leaders including the president and a handful of key cabinet members and close advisers; (2) major corporate owners and directors; and (3) high-ranking military officers. Even though these individuals constitute a close-knit group, they are not part of a conspiracy that secretly manipulates events in their own selfish interest. For the most part, the elite respects civil liberties, follows established constitutional principles, and operates openly and peacefully. It is not a dictatorship; it does not rely on terror, a secret police, or midnight arrests to get its way. It does not have to, as we will see. Nor is its membership closed, although many members have enjoyed a head start in life by virtue of their being born into prominent families. Nevertheless, those who work hard, enjoy good luck, and demonstrate a willingness to adopt elite values do find it possible to work into higher circles from below. If the elite do not derive its power from repression or inheritance, from where does its strength come? Basically it comes from control of the highest positions in the political and business hierarchy and from shared values and beliefs. Elite approach in politics: Those who disagree with pluralism such as C. Wright Mills argue that a few people in all societies manipulate the levers of government to their benefit. As a review of the pluralist approach, Elite theory suggests that focus should not be on individuals and the freely formed groups based on interests but that society breaks down into two groups the few on top who hold power and rule (the ones Plato referred to as philosopher kings) or the Oligarchy The many below who are governed by them. Elite theory acknowledges that human society is not all the same and that the differences among people in society make elite rule or the rule of the oligarchy inevitable elites straddle both the public and private realms. For example different political elites and corporate elites become bureaucratic elites over time and influence the direction of state policies in their different public and private capacities elites of different groups in society political, corporate, workers, ethnic, regional, an d other groups of common bond tend to find what is called Elite Accommodation elites also tend to reproduce them selves as they come to rely on each other for advice and action. They come to share a common world view and defend their common interests some have suggested that the state elites can become autonomous from society through this process of elite accommodation. What emerges is what is called the Embedded Stat Critics of elite theory have pointed to it over-emphasis of the cohesion of the elites or oligarchy and lack of attention to the competition within the ruling elites. Further, that in modern society political constraints makes it impossible for rulers to ignore the interests of the masses. Elite approach focuses on elites domination of political life with an alienated majority accepting their role in society, while the class analysis approach suggests that social classes arise in society because of the nature of the organization of the economy and exist in antagonism against each other Elite theory: Elite theory is a theory of the state which seeks to describe and explain the power relationships in modern society. It argues that a small minority, comprised of members of the economic elite and policy-planning networks, hold the most power no matter what happens in elections in a country. Through positions in corporations or on corporate boards, and influence over the policy-planning networks through financial support of foundations or positions with think tanks or policy-discussion groups, members of the elite are able to have significant power over policy decisions of corporations and governments. The theory stands in opposition to pluralism in suggesting that democracy is a utopian ideal. It also stands in opposition to state autonomy theory. Classical and New Elite Theory Although the idea probably always has been present in some form, elitism emerged as a recognizable and clearly defined part of Western political thought in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The leading contributors to the theory were Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, and Robert Michels. These writers attacked classical democratic thought and also Aristotle and Karl Marx. Majority rule, they insisted, is impossible. Every society is divided into those who rule and those who are ruled; and the rulers constitute only a small minority of any society. Aristotles classification, which divided political systems into three types (rule by one, rule by a few, and rule by the many), does not fit reality either, for no man is capable of ruling by himself, and the many, too, lack the ability to govern. It is the few, under any political system, who exercise effective control. And Marx, with his emphasis on a class struggle that in the end (following the victory of the working class ) leads to social harmony in a classless society, was also wrong. History features a continuing struggle among elites. That struggle will never end, and a classless society cannot be created. Moreover, to the pioneers in the development of elitist theory, Marx placed too much emphasis on economics and not enough on politics, which could be autonomous. Classical elitist theory did not maintain merely that the active, socially recognizable people in a country made its important decisions-whether from within offices of government, from somewhere behind the scenes, or from completely outside the state apparatus. It emphatically asserted that the common man, however numerous within a society in absolute or relative terms, did not. Analysts of elites, who generally focus on the distribution of power rather than on the allocation of values, or on property and other wealth forms, differ somewhat over the degree of participation in government or, more generally, the political process that is necessary for a member of the elite accurately to be judged a member of what Mosca characterizes as the ruling class. A societys elite is usually thought to be a stable entity, self-sustaining and constant over time. Yet the actual group that is in office can change markedly and very quickly. The concept of an elite therefore may need to be understood as encompassing all those who might govern as well as those who in fact do govern. However elite is precisely understood, elitist theory is clear in the basic point that a minority, rather than the masses, controls things. The general population of a country-the common man-is ineffective. Even in societies with elections and other democratic mechanisms, it is posited, the ruling elite functions in a way that is largely independent of control by a popular majority. However, it made need a justifying doctrine. That the elite ordinarily functions according to a political formula, in Moscas term, is what makes its rule effective and acceptable to the masses Thus, in theory, there can be a democratic elitism, however paradoxical that may seem. A new elite paradigm, building on the work of Mosca and other classical theorists, emerged in the 1980s and 1990s among comparative political sociologists. It drew attention to the occurrence, and the important effects, of divisions that may arise within the elite of a society. Its central proposition, as stated by John Higley and Michael Burton (1989), is as follows: A disunified national elite, which is the most common type, produces a series of unstable regimes that tend to oscillate between authoritarian and democratic forms over varying intervals. A consensually unified national elite, which is historically much rarer, produces a stable regime that may evolve into a modern democracy, as in Sweden, or Britain, or the United States, if economic and other facilitative conditions permit. In the United States, normally, internal and external conditions have favored consensual unity within the nations elite. Of course, the American Revolution and, later, the Civil War, are the major exceptions to this generalization. During those periods, divisions ran so deep as to produce counter-elites. As the political sociologist Barrington Moore, Jr., and the political historian C. Vann Woodward have shown, the reconciliation between North and South that occurred following post-Civil War Reconstruction was in significant part a result of a complex bargain between the elites in formerly opposed geographical sections. After the late nineteenth century, issues of foreign policy have on occasion divided the American elite as well. A by-product of this has been a widening of participation in the national debate over foreign policy. That this amounts to a democratization of American foreign policymaking, however, is highly disputable. Elite theorists: Wright Mills C. Wright Mills published his book The Power Elite in 1956 claiming a new perspective on systems of power in the USA. He identified a triumvirate of power groups political, economic and military who form a distinguishable, although not unified body, wielding power in the American state: He proposed that this group had been generated through a process of rationalisation at work in all advanced industrial societies where by the mechanisms of power became concentrated funnelling overall control into the hands of a limited, somewhat corrupt group (Bottomore 1993). This reflected a decline in politics as an arena for debate and relegation to a merely formal level of discourse (Mills 1956). This macro-scale analysis sought to point out the degradation of democracy in advanced societies and the fact that power generally lies outside the boundaries of elected representatives. Floyd Hunter The elite theory analysis of power was also applied on the micro scale in community power studies such as that by Floyd Hunter (1953). Hunter examined in detail the power relationships evident in his Regional City looking for the real holders of power rather than those in obvious official positions. He posited a structural-functional approach which mapped the hierarchies and webs of interconnection operating within the city mapping relationships of power between businessmen, politicians, clergy etc. The study was promoted to debunk current concepts of any democracy present within urban politics and reaffirm the arguments for a true representative democracy (Hunter 1953). This type of analysis was also used in later, larger scale, studies such as that carried out by M. Schwarz examining the power structures within the sphere of the corporate elite in the USA (Schwarz 1987). James Burnham James Burnhams early work The Managerial Revolution sought to express the movement of all functional power into the hands of managers rather than politicians or businessmen separating ownership and control (Bottomore 193). Many of these id

Friday, September 20, 2019

Prosthetics :: essays research papers

Introduction Prosthetics is the branch of surgery dealing with mechanical devices used to reproduce the form and function of missing body parts. Prosthetics is the replacement of faulty or amputated body parts with artificial body parts. Artificial limbs have been in use since at least 300 BC. In AD 1509 German knight, GÃ ¶tz von Berlichingen, called GÃ ¶tz of the Iron Hand, wore an artificial hand with jointed fingers. Early in the 19th century a German prosthesist built a hand with fingers that could be flexed or extended and that could hold light objects, such as a pen or a hat. Before World War I (1914-1918), wood was considered the best substance for making artificial legs, but later an aluminum alloy called Duraluminum, and more recently fiber materials, have made artificial limbs both lightweight and strong. In recent years, the manufacture of prosthetic devices has developed into a science. Artificial limbs with functioning joints can simulate natural motion. Hip joint prostheses can pr ovide virtually normal mobility for people with damaged hip joints. History Artificial limbs, in one form or other, have been in use from ancient times. In 1885, a specimen was discovered in a tomb at Capua, Italy, along with other relics dating from 300BC. The celebrated artificial hand built in 1509 for the German knight Gotz von Berlichingen, who was called Gotz of the Iron Hand, weighed about 1.4 kg (3 lb.) and had articulated fingers so constructed as to be able to grasp a sword or lance. The hand is in the NÃ ¼rnberg Museum and is still in working order. Early in the 19th century a German prosthesist built a hand with fingers that could be flexed or extended without assistance and yet could still close to hold light objects, such as a pen, a handkerchief, or a hat. In 1851, a French prosthesist invented an artificial arm fitted with a wooden hand and attached to a leather socket that fitted the stump firmly. The fingers were half-closed, the thumb pivoted on a pin and could press firmly against the fingertips by a concealed, strong rubber band; the gr asp of the thumb could be operated by a mechanism attached to the opposite shoulder. The same inventor devised a leg that reproduced a natural gait and lengthened the stride. Technology Before World War I, wood was universally considered the best substance for making artificial legs. Prosthetic devices made of leather reinforced with metal bands tended to lose their shape and were therefore unsatisfactory.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

East Timor :: essays research papers

The Indonesian invasion and occupation of East Timor is one of the worst atrocities of this century. The occupation has claimed the lives of over 200,000 Timorese people, one-third of the original population. It continues in defiance of the United Nations Security Council which has twice called on Jakarta to withdraw "without delay" as well as eight General Assembly Resolutions. It has been maintained with the help of the United States. East Timor, occupies the eastern half of the island of Timor, which lies between Indonesia and Australia (approximately 300 miles north of Darwin), East Timor is has lots of mountains and is culturally diverse. There are 12 main language groups in East Timor. Today, Tetun is the main East Timorese language with Portuguese spoken among older generations and Bahasa Indonesia among the young. A former Portuguese colony, East Timor is recognized by the United Nations as a non-self-governing territory due for decolonization. It was on the agenda of the U.N. agenda long before Indonesia invaded and has been the subject of on and off negotiations, mediated by the U.N. Secretary-General between Portugal and Indonesia since 1983. These talks resulted in the Tripartite agreement to allow a vote on an Indonesian plan to grant East Timor a degree of autonomy. That Indonesia government has agreed that if the East Timorese reject autonomy in the U.N.-organized vote, it will repeal its annexation of East Timor. A U.N.-supervised transition to independence would then occur. Right now, Peace Brigades International is establishing, upon the written request of the East Timorese Human Rights groups, a permanent presence of international volunteers in East Timor.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Blood is on Our Hands Essay -- Essays Papers

The Blood is on Our Hands The two main tribes that occupy the vast land of Rwanda, Africa are the Tutsi and Hutu tribes. According to David Rieff, author of Rwanda and Genocide in the Twentieth Century, Rwanda gained its independence from France a little over forty years ago and the territory has been involved in or been on the verge of a civil war between the two tribes ever since. During most of the colonial period the Tutsis had control because of the influence of the Banzugu, the white French man. The Banzugu only occupied about one percent of the population but they obtained most of the material wealth within Rwanda. The Banzugu separated the Hutus from the Tutsis socially based on there physical features. The Tutsis were thought to be the superior tribe because of their non-African appearance, pale skin and their aquiline noses. Since the beginning of their tribal existence the two tribes have lived next to one another, believed in the same religion and spoke the same language. After Rwanda gain ed its independence from France the Tutsis held the majority of the power and authority. The Tutsis only held the control for a short period of time before the Hutus took control. When the Hutus took control many Tutsis fled Rwanda in fear of their lives or stayed and were murdered (1-2). This was just a preview of the rage to come in April of 1994. About nine months before the massacre broke out the governments involved in the peacekeeping agreement signed what was called the Arusha Accords. This treaty was to be an international agreement to help control the constant battling between the Hutus and the Tutsis. On August 4, 1993 only five short days before the funding to the Rwandan government was revoked, Presi... ...f 1994 in Rwanda in the amount of time it would have taken you to read this paper over fifty-five innocent people would have been put to death! Works Cited Burkhalter, Holly J. â€Å"The Question of Genocide: The Clinton Administration and Rwanda.† World Policy Journal 11.4 (1994): 44-55. Byrne, Louise. â€Å"Doctors Battle to Contain Cholera in Rwandan Camps.† British Medical Journal 309 (1994): 289 Des Forges, Alison, et al. Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. New York: International, 1999. Gourevitch, Philip. We Wish to Inform You that Tomorrow We Will be Killed with Our Families: Stories from Rwanda. New York: Farrar, 1998. Ignatieff, Michael. â€Å"The Next President’s Duty to Intervene.† New York Times 13 Feb. 2000, late ed., sec. 4: 17. Rieff, David. â€Å"Rwanda and Genocide in the Twentieth Century.† The New Republic 214 (1996): 27-37.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Promoting Molly’s health and wellbeing Essay

The purpose of this essay will to be to promote Molly’s health and wellbeing through evidence based theory and practice (Refer to appendix 1 for Molly scenario). Molly has various health needs that necessitate the need for health promotion such as the risk of postnatal depression. However, for the purpose of this essay, the focus will be her type 2 diabetes health need. There are several bio-psychosocial factors that contribute to Molly’s health and wellbeing such as genes, stress and low income. The interventions that are designed to promote Molly’s health and wellbeing will include education and empowerment . These will address Molly’s determinants of health by using appropriate models and approaches to provide realistic and practical suggestions to Molly. The rationale upon promoting Molly’s diabetic health need is due to the fact that, type 2 diabetes can cause severe complications such as retinopathy, kidney failure and cardiovascular disease. What is more, type 2 diabetes continues to increase in the United Kingdom and it is estimated to affect more than 5 million people by 2015 (NHS choices 2013) Historic overview of health promotion was first highlighted by Florence Nightingale (1860) who noted the biomedical care given to patients and suggested the need to provide holistic patient centred care to patients (Piper 2010). Notably, she recognized the importance of environmental factors such as cleanliness and nutrition to promote the health of patients (Piper 2009). Health promotion is a plethora of contested definitions. Therefore, over the years there have been considerable attempts to define this concept. For (WHO 1986) Ottawa Charter, health promotion is defined as a process of educating and empowering people to make healthier choices (Hubley et al 2013). This definition implies that, health promotion is a holistic concept that emphasizes on the physical, social and mental wellbeing (Piper 2010) The nurse is the health professional that will be involved in promoting Molly’s health and wellbeing through evidence based theory and practice in addition to using various models and approaches (Piper 2009). This strategy will enable Molly and the nurse to individually and holistically express themselves, develop innovative plans suited to Molly’s health needs and promote effective communication between Molly and  the nurse (Bowden and Manning 2006). Communication is an important principle in health promotion as not only does it underpin the basis of holistic care given to patients but it also builds therapeutic relationships between the nurse and the patient (Bowden 2006). Communication is a fundamental concept in nursing that is defined as a skill of information sharing between the patient and other health professionals (Yulli et al 2011). In these circumstances, the nurse will communicate with Molly through various modes of communication which will include verbal, non-verbal and written communication. She will discuss with Molly on shared values and beliefs that is relevant to Molly’s health needs. Most important, communication in Molly’s case will go beyond information sharing to involving Molly in her own care by supporting her to make positive healthier choices in her life (Hubley 2013). Significantly, the nurse will adhere to ethical principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice (Whitewood 2010). There are several bio bio-psychosocial factors that contribute to the health and wellbeing of Molly. These factors can be well understood by using the bio-psychosocial model. This is holistic model that combines major determinants of health such as social economic status, biological status and psychological status to give a holistic view of an individual mental, physical and social wellbeing (Baxter 2010). The biological factors that contribute to Molly diabetic health need are her genetic susceptibility due to her family history (NHS choices2013). Her unborn child is also at a risk of inheriting the illness from her mother. Type 2 diabetes tends to run in families largely due to similar unhealthy lifestyle (Bowden and Manning 2006). Whereas Molly might have inherited type 2 diabetes from her parents, the development of this illness is also influenced by lifestyle choices (NHS choices 2013). Psychologically, Molly is at the risk of suffering from postnatal depression and stress due t o physical demands of work and taking care of her family. This can consequently lead to mental illnesses (Hobart and Frankel 2009). Psychological illnesses can affect Molly’s ability to self-manage her blood glucose. Apart from this, psychological instability can cause Molly to lose control of her diabetes with fatal consequences (NHS choices 2013). Molly is on a low social economic status as she is only able to work part time. Green  and Tones (2010) contends that, low income limits access to nutritional food and housing which can consequently lead to poor physical health and social exclusion. Furthermore, Hill et al 2013 s proposes that, type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects people with limited resources. Perhaps this is because, low income earners are more likely to indulge in unhealthy damaging behaviours such as eating unhealthy food and lack of physical activity (Hubley 2013). If this were the case, Molly might not able buy healthy food or accesses those activities that address her health needs such as the gym and other social networks in her community. All these factors might hinder positive health outcomes. According to (WHO 1986), health is defined as not only an absence of diseases but also a complete state of physical and mental wellbeing. In order to promote Molly’s health, a holistic approach is needed to address the bio-psychosocial the factors that affect her health and wellbeing. Therefore, various activities need to be undertaken by using appropriate theoretical approaches and models. Initially, the nurse should ensure that, Molly’s basic needs are meet first before moving up to the higher needs. Maslow (1943) proposed that, humans have hierarchies of needs. He believed that, needs such as food and water are meet first before reaching the level of self-actualisation (Hubley2013). Having previously identified that Molly is on a low income which can affect her ability to access healthy food. The health promotion priority will be then to address this need before moving on to the other higher needs. The nurse should advice Molly on the help that is available for her to increase her earnings . For example, Molly would benefit from extended school that offer childcare and family support services (Larkin 2009). The importance of childcare would be that, Molly will be able to work more hours bringing in some extra income for her family. Consequently, she will be able to buy healthy food and engage in activities such as swimming or going to the gym. Significantly, this would reduce her risk of social exclusion and diabetes related complications (NHS choices 2013). However, it is important that Molly believes that, her positive health behaviours will prevent complications and help acquire good quality of life. This will influence  Molly’s willingness to take action (Yulli 2010). According to Health belief model by Rosenstock (1966), Molly will only take positive action if she believes that, she is susceptible to serious illnesses, believes that her type 2 diabetes is serious and believes that her positive actions will avoid the negative consequences of diabetes ( Yulli 2010). For instance, by doing physical activities it reduces her chance of her being obese and consequently reducing her risk the of cardiovascular diseases or even death (Coyle 2013). The Health belief model is useful in promoting Molly’s diabetic health need. This is because it organises the patients health status, views and points out the factors that that determines whether the patient will change their behaviour. Furthermore it provides a useful checklist that points out the issues that need to be addressed and the patient’s motivation to change their health ( Yuill et al 2010). Nevertheless, the Health belief model has not escaped criticism due to its individualistic way and ignores social influences (Hubley 2013). For example, Molly low income status may influence her decision of whether or not she eats healthy food. Furthermore, it does not address psychological factors such as fear and denial that greatly influences human ability to take positive action towards their health (Hubley 2013) . For instance, Molly’s ability to engage in physical activities may be affected her pregnancy, emotions and social influences such as family and friends. Another activity that to be undertaken to promote Molly’s health is encouraging Molly to learn from positive role models that will motivate her to positively regulate her behaviour and reflect on her actions (Green 2010). This can be learning from her family, friends or other people who have type 2diabetes but have successfully managed their diabetes through positive attitudes, behaviours and treatments. According Social learning theory by Bandura (1986), people actions are influenced by observing the behaviour of other people. He argued that, this promotes people self-esteem that in turn drives them to make positive changes (Green 2010). In these circumstances, the social learning theory is equally important in promoting Molly’s diabetic health need because it addresses the concept of self-esteem. This is a key part of resisting negative influences and promotes self-efficacy and locus of control to do what is right by her health (Amdam 2012). Social learning theory importance should not be  underestimated as it recognizes that, individuals do not exist in isolation (Amdam 2012). Despite this, it is criticised by biological theorists for its rejection of biological factors such as genes. Moreover, the biologist model challenges the social learning flawed assumption that, behaviours are learnt by contending that, behaviours are inherited but not learnt (Gyenscuico 2011). Education is another activity that needs to be undertaken in order to promote Molly’s diabetic health need. The aim of education will be to teach Molly on self-management skills and to improve Molly’s knowledge on diabetic care (Bowden and Manning 2006). The nurse will use health educational model to modify Molly’s behaviour and actions through providing value-laden facts and information about type 2 diabetes . This may be done by giving Molly leaflets about type 2 diabetes, teaching Molly on how to control and monitor her glucose levels (Bowden and Manning 2006). According to education approach, if Molly have the necessary knowledge on diabetes, she is more likely to make positive decisions (Lawrence et al 2009). For Instance, by teaching Molly how her blood glucose is affected by food and exercise, she is more likely to eat more healthier food and be active in order to keep her blood glucose stable (NHS 2012). One cannot ignore that education model is evidence based and not only does it educate the patient but it also gives skills to the patient. However, this model fails to consider environmental, psychological and economic constraints which affect individual’s ability to make choices (Lawrence et al 2009). Another limitation of this model is its simplistic view of cost-benefit analysis. It assumes that, if Molly is given the knowledge she will accept it unconditionally, weigh up the cost and then make a positive health choices for her best interest (Bowden and Manning 2006). What is more, its deterministic view point that, education is a must does and its top down approach does not give Molly much free will to make her own choices which the self-empowerment does (Bowden and Manning). The empowerment model gives the patient the free will through it advocacy of the individual concept of locus of control and self-efficacy to take control of their own health (Lawrence et al 2013). Thi s model links to the activity of empowerment which is another activity that needs to be undertaken in in order to promote Molly’s health and well being . This will be through Molly  participating and taking part in all areas of decision making (Piper 2009). This model shifts the balance of power from the health professionals to the patient (Piper 2010). The empowerment model bottom up approach is a vital factor in empowering the patient (Bowden and Manning 2006). The empowerment will mean that , Molly is acknowledged as being a part of her health promotion and she will work alongside the nurse and other multi-agency teams involved in her own care (Yulli et al 2010). Perhaps this might raise her confidence and influence her ability to make healthier choices by taking responsibilities on her type 2 diabetes management (Hanlon et al 2012). The advantage of using the self-empowerment model in Molly’s scenario will be that, Molly will gain more control of her life and confidence to move towards healthier existence (Hanlon 2012). However, it fails to consider influences of power that may prevent Molly from making healthier choices (Hanlon 2012). For example, Molly’s husband might influence her ability to make choices. Moreover, it does not address social economic factors such as low income that can mean that, Molly’s primacies may be at odd with the priorities of the health promoting professionals (Bowden and manning 2006). Finally, its acknowledgment of the self-determination means that, Molly might exercise her free will and choose unhealthy eating behaviours that might place her at risk or even death (Dean and Irvine 2010) One cannot ignore the benefits of health promotion in Molly’s scenario is a useful tool to educate, motivate and empower Molly to make positive changes towards her health. However, health promotion can be problematic at times. This is due to the dangerous assumptions of the health promoters focus on health issues ignoring that, people have various motives to change their behaviours and health might not be one of them (Scrive 2010). For instance, for Molly diabetic health need might not be her prime motivator to change her lifestyle. Another criticism of health promotion is the ever changing health advice for patients due to research that is always finding new evidence (Amdam 2011). In these circumstances, patients have barely enough time try one treatment or advice before th ey can adapt to another. This affects the efficacy of health promotion (Scriven 2010). Evidently, the media contradicts the health promotion advice which is based on facts due to its focus on controversy rather than facts which can be confusing for the patients (Amdam 2011). Furthermore, the health promotion in Molly’s scenario  raises this question. If Molly decides not to change, does it mean that the health promotion in her case has failed? The challenges of effective health promotion require actions at all levels starting at an individual, community and at a government level (Scriven 2011). Therefore, to successfully, promote the health of an individual, it is necessary to have an approach that combines all these levels together as they all influence the effectiveness of health promotion ( Amdam 2011). To conclude, health promotion is defined as a process of educating and empowering people to make healthier choices. Molly’s health is influenced by various determinants of health that are linked to her social, biological and environmental conditions. The health promotion emphasis is to tackle such determinants of health through evidence based practices that combines various theories and approaches. These theories and approaches are tied up with practical activities that are aimed at changing Molly’s lifestyle and behaviour to promote her health. The importance of health promotion should not be underestimated at it educates and empowers the patients to make positive actions towards their health. Nevertheless, health promotion is plagued with challenges such as contradicting health advice that affects the efficacy of health promotion. These challenges affect the most vulnerable people such as Molly. It is therefore important that the health promoters recognizes these difficulties and address them accordingly. Finally, it is recommended that, future health promotion professionals address the deficit of the lack of an approach that tackles health promotion at an individual, community, government level to ensure the effectiveness of health promotion. Referencing Amdam, R. (2011) Planning in health promotion work. Oxfordshire: Routledge. Baxter, M. Health (2010). 2nd ed. Cornwall: Polity press. Bowden, J. and Manning, V. (2006) Health promotion in Midwifery. 2nd ed. London: Edward Arnold Ltd. Ghensucico, B. (2011) Critic on Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory. Dawsonera [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 25 January 2014] Green, J. and Tones, K. (2010) Health promotion planning and strategies. 2nd ed. London: Sage Publication Ltd. Hanlon, P. Carlisle, S. Hannah, M. and Lyon, A. ((2012) The future public health London: Open University Press. Hobart , C., Frankel. J. (2009) Safeguarding children . 3rd ed. Cheltenham: Thornes Ltd. Hubley, J. Copeman, J. and Woodall, J. (2013) Practical health promotion. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Polity Press. Larkin, M. (2009) Vulnerable groups in health and social care. Dawsonera [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 30 March 2014] Needle, JJ. Petchey, RP. Benson, J. Scriven, A. Lawrenson, J. and Hilari, K.(2011) The allied health professions and health promotion: [Systematic review] Cochrane

Monday, September 16, 2019

Industry Profile of Bsnl

INDUSTRY PROFILE The telecom industry is one of the fastest growing industries in India. India has nearly 200 million telephone lines making it the third largest network in the world after China and USA. With a growth rate of 45%, Indian telecom industry has the highest growth rate in the world. History of Indian Telecommunications started in 1851 when the first operational land lines were laid by the government near Calcutta (seat of British power). Telephone services were introduced in India in 1881. In 1883 telephone services were merged with the postal system. Indian Radio Telegraph Company (IRT) was formed in 1923. After independence in 1947, all the foreign telecommunication companies were nationalized to form the Posts, Telephone and Telegraph (PTT), a monopoly run by the government's Ministry of Communications. Telecom sector was considered as a strategic service and the government considered it best to bring under state's control. The first wind of reforms in telecommunications sector began to flow in 1980s when the private sector was allowed in telecommunications equipment manufacturing. In 1985, Department of Telecommunications (DOT) was established. It was an exclusive provider of domestic and long- distance service that would be its own regulator (separate from the postal system). In 1986, two wholly government-owned companies were created: the Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) for international telecommunications and Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) for service in metropolitan areas. In 1990s, telecommunications sector benefited from the general opening up of the economy. Also, examples of telecom revolution in many other countries, which resulted in better quality of service and lower tariffs, led Indian policy makers to initiate a change process finally resulting in opening up of telecom services sector for the private sector. National Telecom Policy (NTP) 1994 was the first attempt to give a comprehensive roadmap for the Indian telecommunications sector. In 1997, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was created. TRAI was formed to act as a regulator to facilitate the growth of the telecom sector. New National Telecom Policy was adopted in 1999 and cellular services were also launched in the same year. Telecommunication sector in India can be divided into two segments: Fixed Service Provider (FSPs), and Cellular Services. Fixed line services consist of basic services, national or domestic long distance and international long distance services. The state operators (BSNL and MTNL), account for almost 90 per cent of revenues from basic services. Private sector services are presently available in selective urban areas, and collectively account for less than 5 per cent of subscriptions. However, private services focus on the business/corporate sector, and offer reliable, high- end services, such as leased lines, ISDN, closed user group and videoconferencing. Cellular services can be further divided into two categories: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The GSM sector is dominated by Airtel, Vodafone-Hutch, and Idea Cellular, while the CDMA sector is dominated by Reliance and Tata Indicom. Opening up of international and domestic long distance telephony Services are the major growth drivers for cellular industry. Cellular operators get substantial revenue from these services, and compensate them for reduction in tariffs on airtime, which along with rental was the main source of revenue. The reduction in tariffs for airtime, national long distance, international long distance, and handset prices has driven demand. AN ORGANISATIONAL PROFILE OF BSNL BSNL adopt latest digital switching technology like OCB, EWSD, AXE-10, FETEX, NEC, etc and widespread transmission network including SDH system up to 80 gbps web telephony, DIAS, VPN Broad brand and more than 400000 data customers, BSNL continues to serve this great nation. The responsibilities include improvement of the already impeccable quality of telecom services, expansion of telecom network, introduction of new telecom services in all villages and instilling confidence among its customers. BSNL has managed to shoulder these responsibilities remarkably and daftly. Today with over 45 million line capacity, 99. 9% exchange digital, nation wide Network management & surveillance system (NMSS) to control telecom traffic and over 400000 route kms of OFC network, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd is a name to reckon with in the world of connectivity. Along with its vest customer base, BSNL’s standing. The telecom infrastructure alone is worth about Rs. 100000 crore. Turnover of Rs. 31400 crore. BSNL’s nation wide coverage and reach comprehensive range of telecom service and a penchant for excellence; and you have the ingredients for restructuring India for a bright future. Today BSNL is most trusted Telecom Brand of India. EVOLUTION OF BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED (BSNL) In India, the Posts and Telegraph Department originated in 1851 as a small part of the Public Works Department. Dr. William Shaughnessy pioneered telegraph and telephone in India. A regular separate department was opened around 1854 when telegraph facilities were thrown open to the public. The major milestones of the organization are as shown below. BSNL Corporate Organizational Structure {draw:frame} Vision, Mission & Objectives of BSNL VISION: To become the largest telecom Service Provider in Asia. MISSION : To provide world class State-of-art technology telecom services to its customers on demand at competitive prices. To Provide world class telecom infrastructure in its area of operation and to contribute to the growth of the country's economy. OBJECTIVES : To be a Lead Telecom Services Provider. To provide mobile telephone service of high quality and become no. 1 GSM operator in its area of operation. Contribute towards: National Plan Target of 500 million subscriber base for the country by December Broadband customers base of 20 million in the country by 2010 as per Broadband Policy 2004. Providing telephone connection in villages as per government policy. Implementation of Triple play as a regular commercial proposition.