Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Nutrition Trends Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Nutrition Trends - Essay Example Taking advantage of this trend companies are coming up with products enriched with amino acids GABA, L-theanine and tryptophan (Helm, 2009). 3. Catnap food: To meet the everyday challenges it is essential to procure healthier sleep at night. For this as many as 30 food products including beverages have been launched that claim to induce sleep, encompassing chocolate and hot cocoa drinks (Helm, 2009). 4. Planetary health: Apart from personal health trend also paves the way for "eco friendly"; "go green" products are being promoted including the kind of packing that has been adopted to have a safe environment (Helm, 2009). 5. Defensive foods & inflammation fighters: Trend implies the inclination for food products that keeps the doctor away and enhance immunity through vitamin C and antioxidants, thereby, promoting foods minimizing the probabilities of chronic illness akin to heart and obesity related issues or diabetes (Helm, 2009). In order to evade the risk of chronic diseases, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans[Dietary Guidelines] affords scientific recommendations to endorse health and to trim down menaces. Repercussions of underprivileged dietary practices and physical sluggishness encompass cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis and some cancers. The following guidelines suggested are: 1. Adequate nutrients within calorie needs with least saturated and trans fats, salt, sugar, high cholesterol and alcohol. Depending upon the age and pregnancy conditions the food must be adequately supplemented with vitamins B, C, D, minerals, iron and calcium. 3. Recommended Food Group: Ample of fruits, vegetables, legumes, grains, low fat milk and milk products must be consumed. It is directly correlated with the age. The diet must be low in fat and should be rich in mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acids, the same also holds true for poultry products. The food must comprise ample of carbohydrate and fibres. Sodium

Monday, October 28, 2019

The Cold War Essay Example for Free

The Cold War Essay It was in the latter part of the 1960s when America’s National Aeronautics and Space Administration succeeded in landing a manned mission on the moon. But this event is not enough to define the 60s; it was the Cold War between the USSR and the United States of America that can rightfully make this claim. A closer look into the motivations behind the space program will reveal that the driving force was President Kennedy’s desire to show the world that the American way of life is better than what communism has to offer. In 1960, Nikita Khrushchev, Soviet Russia’s commander-in-chief declared that America’s grandchildren would live under communism† (Shapiro, 2004). In 1963 America was in the brink of a nuclear war with the USSR. The Cuban Missile Crisis was averted only at the last minute. Both Russia and the United States were determined to show the whole world which ideology was the best (Westad, 2007). It is a good thing that both nations were evenly matched and so the world was spared another global war. But since Khrushchev made that UN speech, Americans could never rest easy. Although there were no Russian-made nuclear warheads that found its way into American soil, people still live in dread. According to Shapiro, â€Å"We constructed mock air raids in our schools; we engineered civil defense plans to expedite evacuations of metropolitan areas, we built up our military forces and armament† (2004). In short the Cold War consumed the whole of the United States and its impact will be felt three decades later.a

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Genetic Engineering: Our Key to a Better World Essay -- Genetic Engine

What is genetic engineering one might ask and why is there so much moral controversy surrounding the topic? Genetic engineering as defined by Pete Moore, "is the name given to a wide variety of techniques that have one thing in common: they all allow the biologist to take a gene from one cell and insert it into another" (SS1). Such techniques included in genetic engineering (both "good" and "bad") are, genetic screening both during the fetal stage and later in life, gene therapy, sex selection in fetuses, and cloning. Because of many ethical, religious, and safety concerns, genetic engineering is the source of much debate and argument. Many people, even scientists, have raised strong questions concerning the issue. In his article Moore raises such questions as, "Could the technology get out of control and damage human health or the environment? Who will decide which of the many uses are safe and permissible, and which should be banned? How can we assess the safety of genetic enginee ring?" (SS1) These questions and similar ones raised by the opposition do hold valid moral and ethical considerations. However, the vast benefits of regulated genetic engineering techniques could greatly improve human health, the environment, and agriculture, and must be allowed to be explored by responsible scientists. Simply put, genetic engineering offers a possible brighter future for our world and everyone in it and it must be pursued in a restricted manner so the positive effects can be obtained. The first point that must be made when arguing for the use of genetic engineering is stressing that genetic engineering must be highly controlled to avoid possible catastrophe. In his book, The Ethics of Genetic Control, Joseph Fletcher describes ... ...seases would also be eliminated. It is obvious that both sides of the genetic engineering debate have very valid arguments based on their beliefs. However, from the scientist standpoint the banning of genetic engineering research and techniques would be a rash mistake. For how can we know what might have been if we never try? And how can with move our world into the future without exploring progress? Therefore, under strict controls, safety precautions, and bans of unethical techniques, genetic engineering could very well be the key to a better world and a better life for all. Works Cited: Fletcher, Joseph. The Ethics of Genetic Control. New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1974. Moore, Pete. "Genetic Manipulation." New Scientist 13 Nov. 1993: SS1-SS4. Shannon, Thomas A. What Are They Saying About Genetic Engineering? New York: Paulist Press, 1985.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

‘Antony and Cleopatra’ & Shakespeare Essay

As is often true of the study of history in general, the people who dominate Shakespeare’s historical plays are those in positions of power and authority. This is simply because such people will be the ones to effect history in the most significant way. In ‘Antony and Cleopatra’ we see several different leadership figures, who show all of the range of burdens, strains and qualities that those in positions of power can have (such as Antony himself, Cleopatra, Caesar, Lepidus and Pompey). In terms of leadership, Classical Renaissance ideas can be very helpful when trying to approach Antony and Cleopatra for the first time. The traditional idea of heroism and leadership was summed up in the quality known as ‘virtus’, which describes the characteristics of a virile nature, military strength, and old ideas of chivalry and honour. Renaissance artists such as Machiavelli in ‘The Prince’, modified this to emphasise calm ruthlessness and intellectual power. As we shall see, these two opposing views of what a leader should be (the traditional and renaissance ideals) are reflected in the struggle between Antony and Caesar. Antony, representing the old ‘virus’ values, is defeated and replaced by Caesar, representing the Machiavellian hero. Thus I shall begin with these two characters, whose conflict is vitally central to the play. Antony is represented as an old-fashioned hero, whose moral blemishes are excused because of his heroic nature. Maecenas tells us that his â€Å"taints and honours waged equal with him† (Act 5, scene 1). These taints become apparent in the first act when we discover that Antony in fact has a wife (Fulvia), even though we have just watched the obvious love affair that he is having with Cleopatra. When he returns to Rome (having heard of the death of his wife), he soon marries Caesar’s sister thus betraying Cleopatra. However, we do also see that Antony has an obvious preoccupation with honour, reputation and ancestry. His past military glory is very important to him, and it is for these ideas of honour and ancestry that he eventually will return away from Egypt and back to war. These are all characteristics of the traditional hero, whose titanic anger would have won him favour in the eyes of the Shakespearean audience, but perhaps not as much, in a modern audience. This is because he is more likely to be seen in modern times as an impulsive reckless leader who leads with his heart and not his head. In Act 3 scene 10, Antony’s declaration that he will fight by sea has the ring of bluster and bravado, and is an emotional response to Caesar’s challenge. His decision alarms even the most humble soldier who pleads: â€Å"O noble emperor, do not fight by sea/Trust not to rotten planks† Sweeping, flamboyant gestures, such as his challenge to single combat and his declarations of the love he feels for Cleopatra (which he sees as liberating and life enhancing – â€Å"The nobleness of life is to do thus† Act 1 scene1) provide a stark contrast to the behaviour of Caesar. Another element that is central to Antony as a leader, is the constant conflict between duty and desire. This conflict results in a felling of guilt, a sense that he has neglected his duty to his people. It is only in the final stages that we see these emotions expressed. In Act 3, after Antony’s defeat in battle, for the first time we see an Antony full of self-disgust, confusion and an overall sense of failure. The responsibility that he feels for his men, and the fact that his actions determine the fate of all of them, obviously makes defeat even worse. In some instances however, Antony’s honest acknowledgement of his faults increases our respect for him, as when he admits that â€Å"poisoned hours† (Act 1, scene 2) caused him to forget himself and lose his sense of duty. Another aspect to the burden that all leaders must face is that of being replaced. The endless cycle of the old being overthrown by the young, is one of the hardest things a leader has to face, partly due to its inevitability. In Act 3 scene 11, Antony addresses an imaginary listener, and takes comfort in recalling the military success he achieved at Philip, whilst the inexperienced Caesar relied on his officers to fight for him and wore his sword as an ornament, â€Å"like a dancer†. Though Antony does have negative aspects to his character, he has a warmth, human passion and engaging personality that is totally lacking in Octavius Caesar. He is in general represented in an unflattering light. He is shown to be an unemotional, strict character who is quick to turn on Antony when he steps out of line. This seems all the more heartless when we realise that Antony was a close and dear friend to Octavius’s father, Julius Caesar. However at the same time he is shown as the successful strategist and ruler. This pehaps is meant to demonstate the idea that a truly great leader cannot be an overly emotionally figure. He represents Roman efficiency and Duty to the state, whose interests must be held before all others, and achieved by whatever means necessary. This manipulative nature is shown through his reconciliation with Antony. Caesar needs Antony’s military skill in the war against Pompey, and can see that the Roman people, who do not love Caesar (â€Å"Caesar gets money where/ he loses hearts† Act2 Scene1), will follow the heroic Antony into battle. The marriage that he orchestrates between his sister and Antony shows that he is a figure who is only able to gain loyalty through his manipulation of others. We must still recognise, however, that Caesar has all the qualities necessary to be a good leader. Indeed he seems not to feel any of the psychological burdens that come with leadership. He seems to be sufficiently focused on the success of Rome, to think that any burdens he does feel must be tolerated out of a sense of duty, but also to satisfy his ambition. He sees Antony as having become a â€Å"strumpet’s fool†, and his pursuit of pleasure being an intolerable burden placed on the triumvirate. As well as the contrast between Antony and Caesar, we also see several stark contrasts between Cleopatra and Caesar. She represents indulgence, extravagance and pleasure, whilst Caesar (as said before) represents duty and self-control. Cleopatra’s royalty and power is emphasised by her own self-preservation, bolstered by her followers and maidservants. We are constantly reminded of her position, through what is said and the general grandeur that surrounds her. Antony calls her â€Å"your royalty† (Act1 scene 3), and Cleopatra reminds the helpless messenger in Act 3: â€Å"Remember/If e’er thou look’st on majesty† She is a traditional Queen, believing that she rules by a divine right, and owes nothing to her people. As a result she is much more likely not to suffer from the guilt and duty to her people that both Antony and Caesar show. Caesar is a democratically elected leader, is meant to represent the people, and thus the sense of having a duty toward them is much stronger. Like Antony, Cleopatra is ruled by passion. She is capable at points in the play of inspiring intense admiration, whilst at others, of showing a common humanity. Indeed this is demonstrated perfectly in Enobarbus’ speech in act 2 scene 2, which describes both sides to her personality.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

A Game of Thrones Chapter Sixty-three

Catelyn The woods were full of whispers. Moonlight winked on the tumbling waters of the stream below as it wound its rocky way along the floor of the valley. Beneath the trees, warhorses whickered softly and pawed at the moist, leafy ground, while men made nervous jests in hushed voices. Now and again, she heard the chink of spears, the faint metallic slither of chain mail, but even those sounds were muffled. â€Å"It should not be long now, my lady,† Hallis Mollen said. He had asked for the honor of protecting her in the battle to come; it was his right, as Winterfell's captain of guards, and Robb had not refused it to him. She had thirty men around her, charged to keep her unharmed and see her safely home to Winterfell if the fighting went against them. Robb had wanted fifty; Catelyn had insisted that ten would be enough, that he would need every sword for the fight. They made their peace at thirty, neither happy with it. â€Å"It will come when it comes,† Catelyn told him. When it came, she knew it would mean death. Hal's death perhaps . . . or hers, or Robb's. No one was safe. No life was certain. Catelyn was content to wait, to listen to the whispers in the woods and the faint music of the brook, to feel the warm wind in her hair. She was no stranger to waiting, after all. Her men had always made her wait. â€Å"Watch for me, little cat,† her father would always tell her, when he rode off to court or fair or battle. And she would, standing patiently on the battlements of Riverrun as the waters of the Red Fork and the Tumblestone flowed by. He did not always come when he said he would, and days would ofttimes pass as Catelyn stood her vigil, peering out between crenels and through arrow loops until she caught a glimpse of Lord Hoster on his old brown gelding, trotting along the rivershore toward the landing. â€Å"Did you watch for me?† he'd ask when he bent to bug her. â€Å"Did you, little cat?† Brandon Stark had bid her wait as well. â€Å"I shall not be long, my lady,† he had vowed. â€Å"We will be wed on my return.† Yet when the day came at last, it was his brother Eddard who stood beside her in the sept. Ned had lingered scarcely a fortnight with his new bride before he too had ridden off to war with promises on his lips. At least he had left her with more than words; he had given her a son. Nine moons had waxed and waned, and Robb had been born in Riverrun while his father still warred in the south. She had brought him forth in blood and pain, not knowing whether Ned would ever see him. Her son. He had been so small . . . And now it was for Robb that she waited . . . for Robb, and for Jaime Lannister, the gilded knight who men said had never learned to wait at all. â€Å"The Kingslayer is restless, and quick to anger,† her uncle Brynden had told Robb. And he had wagered their lives and their best hope of victory on the truth of what he said. If Robb was frightened, he gave no sign of it. Catelyn watched her son as he moved among the men, touching one on the shoulder, sharing a jest with another, helping a third to gentle an anxious horse. His armor clinked softly when he moved. Only his head was bare. Catelyn watched a breeze stir his auburn hair, so like her own, and wondered when her son had grown so big. Fifteen, and near as tall as she was. Let him grow taller, she asked the gods. Let him know sixteen, and twenty, and fifty. Let him grow as tall as his father, and hold his own son in his arms. Please, please, please. As she watched him, this tall young man with the new beard and the direwolf prowling at his heels, all she could see was the babe they had laid at her breast at Riverrun, so long ago. The night was warm, but the thought of Riverrun was enough to make her shiver. Where are they? she wondered. Could her uncle have been wrong? So much rested on the truth of what he had told them. Robb had given the Blackfish three hundred picked men, and sent them ahead to screen his march. â€Å"Jaime does not know,† Ser Brynden said when he rode back. â€Å"I'll stake my life on that. No bird has reached him, my archers have seen to that. We've seen a few of his outriders, but those that saw us did not live to tell of it. He ought to have sent out more. He does not know.† â€Å"How large is his host?† her son asked. â€Å"Twelve thousand foot, scattered around the castle in three separate camps, with the rivers between,† her uncle said, with the craggy smile she remembered so well. â€Å"There is no other way to besiege Riverrun, yet still, that will be their undoing. Two or three thousand horse.† â€Å"The Kingslayer has us three to one,† said Galbart Glover. ‘True enough,† Ser Brynden said, â€Å"yet there is one thing Ser Jaime lacks.† â€Å"Yes?† Robb asked. â€Å"Patience.† Their host was greater than it had been when they left the Twins. Lord Jason Mallister had brought his power out from Seagard to join them as they swept around the headwaters of the Blue Fork and galloped south, and others had crept forth as well, hedge knights and small lords and masterless men-at-arms who had fled north when her brother Edmure's army was shattered beneath the walls of Riverrun. They had driven their horses as hard as they dared to reach this place before Jaime Lannister had word of their coming, and now the hour was at hand. Catelyn watched her son mount up. Olyvar Frey held his horse for him, Lord Walder's son, two years older than Robb, and ten years younger and more anxious. He strapped Robb's shield in place and handed up his helm. When he lowered it over the face she loved so well, a tall young knight sat on his grey stallion where her son had been. It was dark among the trees, where the moon did not reach. When Robb turned his head to look at her, she could see only black inside his visor. â€Å"I must ride down the line, Mother,† he told her. â€Å"Father says you should let the men see you before a battle.† ‘Go, then,† she said. â€Å"Let them see you.† ‘It will give them courage,† Robb said. And who will give me courage? she wondered, yet she kept her silence and made herself smile for him. Robb turned the big grey stallion and walked him slowly away from her, Grey Wind shadowing his steps. Behind him his battle guard formed up. When he'd forced Catelyn to accept her protectors, she had insisted that he be guarded as well, and the lords bannermen had agreed. Many of their sons had clamored for the honor of riding with the Young Wolf, as they had taken to calling him. Torrhen Karstark and his brother Eddard were among his thirty, and Patrek Mallister, Smalljon Umber, Daryn Hornwood, Theon Greyjoy, no less than five of Walder Frey's vast brood, along with older men like Ser Wendel Manderly and Robin Flint. One of his companions was even a woman: Dacey Mormont, Lady Maege's eldest daughter and heir to Bear Island, a lanky six-footer who had been given a morningstar at an age when most girls were given dolls. Some of the other lords muttered about that, but Catelyn would not listen to their complaints. â€Å"This is not about the honor of your houses,† she told them. â€Å"This is about keeping my son alive and whole.† And if it comes to that, she wondered, will thirty be enough? Will six thousand be enough? A bird called faintly in the distance, a high sharp trill that felt like an icy hand on Catelyn's neck. Another bird answered; a third, a fourth. She knew their call well enough, from her years at Winterfell. Snow shrikes. Sometimes you saw them in the deep of winter, when the godswood was white and still. They were northern birds. They are coming, Catelyn thought. â€Å"They're coming, my lady,† Hal Mollen whispered. He was always a man for stating the obvious. â€Å"Gods be with us.† She nodded as the woods grew still around them. In the quiet she could hear them, far off yet moving closer; the tread of many horses, the rattle of swords and spears and armor, the murmur of human voices, with here a laugh, and there a curse. Eons seemed to come and go. The sounds grew louder. She heard more laughter, a shouted command, splashing as they crossed and recrossed the little stream. A horse snorted. A man swore. And then at last she saw him . . . only for an instant, framed between the branches of the trees as she looked down at the valley floor, yet she knew it was him. Even at a distance, Ser Jaime Lannister was unmistakable. The moonlight had silvered his armor and the gold of his hair, and turned his crimson cloak to black. He was not wearing a helm. He was there and he was gone again, his silvery armor obscured by the trees once more. Others came behind him, long columns of them, knights and sworn swords and freeriders, three quarters of the Lannister horse. â€Å"He is no man for sitting in a tent while his carpenters build siege towers,† Ser Brynden had promised. â€Å"He has ridden out with his knights thrice already, to chase down raiders or storm a stubborn holdfast.† Nodding, Robb had studied the map her uncle had drawn him. Ned had taught him to read maps. â€Å"Raid him here,† he said, pointing. â€Å"A few hundred men, no more. Tully banners. When he comes after you, we will be waiting†Ã¢â‚¬â€his finger moved an inch to the left—†here.† Here was a hush in the night, moonlight and shadows, a thick carpet of dead leaves underfoot, densely wooded ridges sloping gently down to the streambed, the underbrush thinning as the ground fell away. Here was her son on his stallion, glancing back at her one last time and lifting his sword in salute. Here was the call of Maege Mormont's warhorn, a long low blast that rolled down the valley from the east, to tell them that the last of Jaime's riders had entered the trap. And Grey Wind threw back his head and howled. The sound seemed to go right through Catelyn Stark, and she found herself shivering. It was a terrible sound, a frightening sound, yet there was music in it too. For a second she felt something like pity for the Lannisters below. So this is what death sounds like, she thought. HAAroooooooooooooooooooooooo came the answer from the far ridge as the Greatjon winded his own horn. To east and west, the trumpets of the Mallisters and Freys blew vengeance. North, where the valley narrowed and bent like a cocked elbow, Lord Karstark's warhorns added their own deep, mournful voices to the dark chorus. Men were shouting and horses rearing in the stream below. The whispering wood let out its breath all at once, as the bowmen Robb had hidden in the branches of the trees let fly their arrows and the night erupted with the screams of men and horses. All around her, the riders raised their lances, and the dirt and leaves that had buried the cruel bright points fell away to reveal the gleam of sharpened steel. â€Å"Winterfell!† she heard Robb shout as the arrows sighed again. He moved away from her at a trot, leading his men downhill. Catelyn sat on her horse, unmoving, with Hal Mollen and her guard around her, and she waited as she had waited before, for Brandon and Ned and her father. She was high on the ridge, and the trees hid most of what was going on beneath her. A heartbeat, two, four, and suddenly it was as if she and her protectors were alone in the wood. The rest were melted away into the green. Yet when she looked across the valley to the far ridge, she saw the Greatjon's riders emerge from the darkness beneath the trees. They were in a long line, an endless line, and as they burst from the wood there was an instant, the smallest part of a heartbeat, when all Catelyn saw was the moonlight on the points of their lances, as if a thousand willowisps were coming down the ridge, wreathed in silver flame. Then she blinked, and they were only men, rushing down to kill or die. Afterward, she could not claim she had seen the battle. Yet she could hear, and the valley rang with echoes. The crack of a broken lance, the clash of swords, the cries of â€Å"Lannister† and â€Å"Winterfell† and â€Å"Tully! Riverrun and Tully!† When she realized there was no more to see, she closed her eyes and listened. The battle came alive around her. She heard hoofbeats, iron boots splashing in shallow water, the woody sound of swords on oaken shields and the scrape of steel against steel, the hiss of arrows, the thunder of drums, the terrified screaming of a thousand horses. Men shouted curses and begged for mercy, and got it (or not), and lived (or died). The ridges seemed to play queer tricks with sound. Once she heard Robb's voice, as clear as if he'd been standing at her side, calling, â€Å"To me! To me!† And she heard his direwolf, snarling and growling, heard the snap of those long teeth, the tearing of flesh, shrieks of fear and pain from man and horse alike. Was there only one wolf? It was hard to be certain. Little by little, the sounds dwindled and died, until at last there was only the wolf. As a red dawn broke in the east, Grey Wind began to howl again. Robb came back to her on a different horse, riding a piebald gelding in the place of the grey stallion he had taken down into the valley. The wolf's head on his shield was slashed half to pieces, raw wood showing where deep gouges had been hacked in the oak, but Robb himself seemed unhurt. Yet when he came closer, Catelyn saw that his mailed glove and the sleeve of his surcoat were black with blood. â€Å"You're hurt,† she said. Robb lifted his hand, opened and closed his fingers. â€Å"No,† he said. â€Å"This is . . . Torrhen's blood, perhaps, or . . . † He shook his head. â€Å"I do not know.† A mob of men followed him up the slope, dirty and dented and grinning, with Theon and the Greatjon at their head. Between them they dragged Ser Jaime Lannister. They threw him down in front of her horse. â€Å"The Kingslayer,† Hal announced, unnecessarily. Lannister raised his head. â€Å"Lady Stark,† he said from his knees. Blood ran down one cheek from a gash across his scalp, but the pale light of dawn had put the glint of gold back in his hair. â€Å"I would offer you my sword, but I seem to have mislaid it.† â€Å"It is not your sword I want, ser,† she told him. â€Å"Give me my father and my brother Edmure. Give me my daughters. Give me my lord husband.† â€Å"I have mislaid them as well, I fear.† â€Å"A pity,† Catelyn said coldly. â€Å"Kill him, Robb,† Theon Greyjoy urged. â€Å"Take his head off.† â€Å"No,† her son answered, peeling off his bloody glove. â€Å"He's more use alive than dead. And my lord father never condoned the murder of prisoners after a battle.† â€Å"A wise man,† Jaime Lannister said, â€Å"and honorable.† â€Å"Take him away and put him in irons,† Catelyn said. â€Å"Do as my lady mother says,† Robb commanded, â€Å"and make certain there's a strong guard around him. Lord Karstark will want his head on a pike.† â€Å"That he will,† the Greatjon agreed, gesturing. Lannister was led away to be bandaged and chained. â€Å"Why should Lord Karstark want him dead?† Catelyn asked. Robb looked away into the woods, with the same brooding look that Ned often got. â€Å"He . . . he killed them . . . â€Å" â€Å"Lord Karstark's sons,† Galbart Glover explained. â€Å"Both of them,† said Robb. â€Å"Torrhen and Eddard. And Daryn Hornwood as well.† â€Å"No one can fault Lannister on his courage,† Glover said. â€Å"When he saw that he was lost, he rallied his retainers and fought his way up the valley, hoping to reach Lord Robb and cut him down. And almost did.† â€Å"He mislaid his sword in Eddard Karstark's neck, after he took Torrhen's hand off and split Daryn Hornwood's skull open,† Robb said. â€Å"All the time he was shouting for me. If they hadn't tried to stop him—† â€Å"—I should then be mourning in place of Lord Karstark,† Catelyn said. â€Å"Your men did what they were sworn to do, Robb. They died protecting their liege lord. Grieve for them. Honor them for their valor. But not now. You have no time for grief. You may have lopped the head off the snake, but three quarters of the body is still coiled around my father's castle. We have won a battle, not a war.† â€Å"But such a battle!† said Theon Greyjoy eagerly. â€Å"My lady, the realm has not seen such a victory since the Field of Fire. I vow, the Lannisters lost ten men for every one of ours that fell. We've taken close to a hundred knights captive, and a dozen lords bannermen. Lord Westerling, Lord Banefort, Ser Garth Greenfield, Lord Estren, Ser Tytos Brax, Mallor the Dornishman . . . and three Lannisters besides Jaime, Lord Tywin's own nephews, two of his sister's sons and one of his dead brother's . . . â€Å" â€Å"And Lord Tywin?† Catelyn interrupted. â€Å"Have you perchance taken Lord Tywin, Theon?† â€Å"No,† Greyjoy answered, brought up short. â€Å"Until you do, this war is far from done.† Robb raised his head and pushed his hair back out of his eyes. â€Å"My mother is right. We still have Riverrun.†

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Explore And Analyze One Contradiction(2 Questions) Coursework

Explore And Analyze One Contradiction(2 Questions) Coursework Explore And Analyze One Contradiction(2 Questions) – Coursework Example Explore and analyze one contradiction (2 questions) Qsn President Jackson believed the removal of Indians would contribute to great civilization in the United States of America. Jackson argued that the issue of land was inevitable, and advocated for development among citizens from the northeast of Mississippi (Indian Removal. Extract from Andrew Jacksons Seventh Annual Message to Congress 1). Furthermore, he dismissed romantic representation of the Indian culture as sentimental longing for the simpler time in the past. He believed population transfer was wise and would highly contribute to development (Indian Removal. Extract from Andrew Jacksons Seventh Annual Message to Congress 1).Ross responded to President Jackson’s message by opposing the Indian Removal Act (458-461). He argues that the community is extinct, and they have rights just like the American community. He also explained that the Indians should be allowed to farm and practice their cultural beliefs. The article presented that the central conflict between the Whites, and the Indians was as a result of the Whites refusing to accept Indian cultural practices (Ross 458-461). Qsn 2On the other hand, Cloud’s description of the Trail Of Tears explained the suffering Indians underwent during the removal process. The process was very frustrating and most Indians experienced severe pain. To some extent, some died of diseases and starvation. The White men motivated the negative attitude Cloud had towards the White community (Cloud 3). The discretion is in contrast to Jackson’s opinion of providing civilization for the Indian community.The Factory Tracts article explains how Lowell women suffered in their workstations for ten hours (1). These women called for collective campaigns and action towards their mistreatment. The article aimed at describing the working conditions experienced in most industries in 1845 (The Factory Tracts 1). Finally, the campaigns motivated other industrial move ments to the campaign. Crockett provides a description of frontier politics. The description was based on his campaign for a position at the Tennessee legislature in 1821 (Crockett 137–42). He explains how the limitations of voting during 1821 and how it affected the non-native citizens (Crockett 137–42). In conclusion, these articles give a detailed explanation of how the White community discriminated other races in various ways such as ownership of property, voting, and even in terms of the working conditions.Cloud, Samuel. Trail of Tears (1838). In America:  A Narrative History. Tindall, George B. &   Shi, David E. NY: W.W. Norton & Company, 2010. Print. Crockett, David.  A Narrative of the Life of David Crockett of the State of Tennessee. Philadelphia: E.L. Carey and A. Hart, 1834. Print.Factory Tracts. Factory Life as It Is. Lowell, MA: Lowell Publishing Co., 1845. Print.Indian Removal. Extract from Andrew Jacksons Seventh Annual Message to Congress. 7 Dec. 1835. Web. 8 Apr. 2015. Ross, John.  The Papers of Chief John Ross, Vol 1, 1807–1839. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985. Print.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Commercial Drivers License Guide Colorado, New Mexico, and Nevada

Commercial Drivers License Guide Colorado, New Mexico, and Nevada If you live in Colorado, New Mexico, or Nevada, learn the guideline for getting your Commercial Driver’s License (CDL) below. If you want to learn about getting a CDL at other states, TheJobNetwork has published a guide on how to get a commercial driver’s license in every state of the country. ColoradoRequirements for the CDL Training PermitYou must:Be 18 years oldProvide identification  with your name and address and  proof of U.S. citizenshipVerify your Social Security numberObtain a certificate showing passage of the Department of Transportation (DOT) medical examination  within the last 24 monthsPass the basic CDL written test, which will reflect the class and endorsements you will cover in the CDL driving testPay a $9 permit feeObtaining a CDLAfter you obtain a  temporary permit, you must train for and pass the CDL driving test. The test is not given at driver license offices, but rather is outsourced to private,  third-party companies.The actual test con tains three parts:Pre-trip vehicle inspectionBasic skillsOn-road testThe ApplicationYou can then fill out an application at a full-service driver license office. You must bring with you all the proper identification mention above (including a document with your Social Security number) and  a Medical Examination Report  (Form 649-F).  By this point, you must also have passed   all the required written tests for the class and endorsements for which you are applying and  the CDL driver tests.Finally, you will  relinquish your regular Colorado driver license, along with the CDL temporary permit, pay the $15.50 license fee, have your photo taken, and sign and fingerprint the license.New MexicoYou do not have to take a written test to exchange a valid out-of-state CDL for a New Mexico CDL with the same class and endorsements. However, any driver needing a hazardous materials endorsement must take a written test, be fingerprinted, and get a background check.A driver applicant f or a CDL Permit, a first-time Commercial License, or a Commercial License renewal must provide:A state birth certificate, U.S. passport, or other proof of lawful presence in the United StatesA Social Security CardDOT Medical CertificationTwo verifiable proofs of physical residency in New MexicoA valid New Mexico driver’s/CDL licenseCDL Knowledge TestsAll drivers must  pass all required CDL Knowledge Tests for the desired Class and/or type of vehicle.  Applicants who fail any one CDL Knowledge Test must wait one week before retesting;  applicants may take any one CDL Knowledge Test three times within one-year.  After that  applicants must wait one year before retesting.Any applicant found cheating or committing an offense during  testing will have their CDL application or CDL license disqualified for one year and will be required to obtain a Class D license if holding a CDL.Skills TestsAfter obtaining a  CDL Learner’s Permit, you may inquire where to take the Required Skills Test in your area. The test  is comprised of Pre-Trip, Basic Control Skills, and Road Testing. It is administered by a third-party examiner, and will normally take two hours. Applicants who so not pass  the skills test must wait one week to  retest; you  can  take the skills test three times within a one-year period.Each part of the Knowledge and Skills Test is graded independently; a passing score is 80% or higher.Medical CertificationsApplicants who do not have a current, valid DOT Medical Certificate on record must  submit a copy of a  medical certificate.NevadaSkills tests are administered by appointment at CDL offices only; most organizations hire third-party examiners to administer the exam. The DMV also licenses private Commercial Driving Schools.When you apply, you will provide a list all states where you have held any commercial or non-commercial driver’s license in the past 10 years. Your driving history will be checked in each stat e. All commercial drivers must meet the requirements for a Nevada driver’s license.Upon request you will likely be asked to  submit a Medical Examiner’s Certificate and take a physical exam.  If one  is required, you must obtain it from a physician listed in the  National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners.School BusesSchool bus drivers must have a CDL  if   driving a vehicle designed to transport 16+ people.   School bus drivers must have a school bus endorsement (S) in addition to a passenger endorsement (P) on their CDL.  To obtain  this endorsement, you must pass a knowledge test and a skills test for your class of school bus.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Biography of René Magritte, Belgian Surrealist

Biography of Renà © Magritte, Belgian Surrealist Renà ©Ã‚  Magritte  (1898-1967)  was a famous 20th-century Belgian artist known for his unique  surrealist works. Surrealists  explored the human condition through unrealistic imagery that often came from dreams and the subconscious. Magrittes imagery came from the real world but he used it in unexpected ways. His goal as an artist was  to challenge the viewers assumptions by using odd and surprising juxtapositions of familiar objects such as bowler hats, pipes, and floating rocks. He changed the scale of some objects, he deliberately excluded others, and he played with words and meaning. One of his most famous paintings, The Treachery of Images (1929), is a painting of a pipe below which is written Ceci nest pas une pipe.   (English translation: This is not a pipe.)   Magritte died August 15, 1967 in  Schaerbeek, Brussels, Belgium, of pancreatic cancer. He was buried in  Schaarbeek Cemetery. Early Life and Training Renà © Franà §ois Ghislain Magritte (pronounced mag ·reet) was born November 21, 1898, in Lessines, Hainaut, Belgium. He was the eldest of three sons born to Là ©opold (1870-1928) and Rà ©gina (nà ©e Bertinchamps; 1871-1912) Magritte. Aside from a few facts, almost nothing is known of Magrittes childhood. We know that the familys financial status was comfortable because of Là ©opold, ostensibly a tailor, made handsome profits from his investments in edible oils and bouillon cubes. We also know that young Renà © sketched and painted early on, and began taking formal lessons in drawing in 1910 - the same year that he produced his first  oil painting. Anecdotally, he was said to be a lackluster student in school. The artist himself had little to say about his childhood beyond a few vivid memories that shaped his way of seeing. Perhaps this relative silence about his early life was born when his mother committed suicide in 1912. Rà ©gina had been suffering from depression for an undocumented number of years and was so badly affected that she was usually kept in a locked room. On the night she escaped, she immediately went to the nearest bridge and threw herself into the River Sambre that flowed behind the Magrittes property. Rà ©gina was missing for days before her body was discovered a mile or so downriver. Legend has it that Rà ©ginas nightgown had wrapped itself around her head by the time her corpse was recovered, and an acquaintance of Renà ©s later started the story that he was present when his mother was pulled from the river. He was certainly not there. The only public comment he ever made on the subject was that hed felt guiltily happy to be the focal point of sensation and sympathy, both at school and in his neighborhood. However, veils, curtains, faceless people, and headless faces and torsos  did  become recurring themes in his paintings. In 1916, Magritte enrolled in the  Academie des Beaux-Arts  in Brussels seeking inspiration and a safe distance from the WWI German invasion. He found none of the former but one of his classmates at the Academie introduced him to  cubism, futurism, and purism, three movements he found exciting and which significantly changed the style of his work. Career Magritte  emerged from the  Academie  qualified to do commercial art. After a compulsory year of service in the military in 1921, Magritte returned home and found work as a draughtsman in a wallpaper factory, and worked freelance in advertising to pay the bills while he continued to paint. During this time he saw a painting  by the Italian surrealist  Giorgio de Chirico, called  The Song of Love, which greatly influenced his own art. Magritte created his first surreal painting, Le Jockey Perdu  (The Lost Jockey) in 1926, and had his first solo show in 1927 in Brussels at the Galerie de Centaure. The show was reviewed critically, however, and Magritte, depressed, moved to Paris, where he  befriended Andre Breton and joined the surrealists there - Salvador Dalà ­, Joan Miro, and Max Ernst.  He produced a number of important works during this time, such as The Lovers,  The False Mirror, and the Treachery of Images. After three years, he returned to Brussels and to his work in advertising, forming a company with his brother, Paul. This gave him money to live on while continuing to paint. His painting went through different styles during the last years of World War II as a reaction to the pessimism of his earlier work. He adopted a style similar to the Fauves for a short time during 1947-1948, and also supported himself doing copies of paintings by Pablo Picasso,  Georges Braque, and de Chirico. Magritte dabbled in communism, and whether the forgeries were for purely financial reasons or intended to disrupt Western bourgeois capitalist habits of thought is debatable.   Magritte and  Surrealism Magritte had a witty sense of humor that is evident in his work and in his subject matter. He delighted in representing the paradoxical nature of reality in his paintings and in making the viewer question what reality really is. Rather than depicting fantastic creatures in fictional landscapes, he painted ordinary objects and people in realistic settings. Notable characteristics of his work include the following: His arrangements were often impossible under the laws of physics.The scale of these mundane elements was frequently (and deliberately) wrong.When words were painted - as they were periodically - they were usually a witticism of some sort, as in the aforementioned painting, The Treachery of Images on which he painted, Ceci nest pas une pipe. (This is not a pipe.) Although the viewer can clearly see that the painting is, indeed, of a pipe, Magrittes point is just that - that it is only a  picture  of a pipe. You cant pack it with tobacco, light it, and smoke it. The joke is on the viewer, and Magritte points out the misunderstandings that are inherent in language.Ordinary objects were painted in unusual  ways and in unorthodox juxtapositions in order to evoke mystery. He is known for painting men in bowler hats, perhaps autobiographical, but perhaps merely a prop for his visual games. Famous Quotes Magritte spoke about the meaning, ambiguity, and mystery of his work  in these quotes and others, providing viewers with clues  as to how to interpret his art: My painting is visible images which conceal nothing; they evoke mystery and, indeed, when one sees one of my pictures, one asks oneself this simple question, What does that mean? It does not mean anything because mystery means nothing, it is unknowable.Everything we see hides another thing, we always want to see what is hidden by what we see.Art evokes the mystery without which the world would not exist. Important Works: The Menaced Assassin, 1927The Treachery of Images, 1928-29The Key of Dreams, 1930The Human Condition, 1934Not to be Reproduced, 1937Time Transfixed, 1938The Listening Room, 1952Golconda, 1953 More of Renà © Magrittes work can be seen in the Special Exhibition Gallery Renà © Magritte: The Pleasure Principle. Legacy Magrittes art had a significant impact on the Pop and Conceptual art movements that followed and on the way, we have come to view, understand, and accept surrealist art today. In particular, his repeated use of commonplace objects, the commercial style of his work, and the importance of the concept of technique inspired Andy Warhol and others.  His work has infiltrated our culture to such an extent that it has almost become invisible, with  artists and others continuing to borrow Magrittes iconic images for labels and advertising, something that would no doubt greatly please Magritte. Resources and Further Reading Calvocoressi, Richard. Magritte.London: Phaidon, 1984. Gablik, Suzi. Magritte.New York: Thames Hudson, 2000. Paquet, Marcel. Rene Magritte, 1898-1967: Thought Rendered Visible.New York: Taschen America LLC, 2000.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

If accounting is to retain any credibility-and without credibility it Essay

If accounting is to retain any credibility-and without credibility it is worthless - its guiding light must be neutrality in - Essay Example The aims of financial account have a very major influence on the way institutions operate, on certain rules and regulations of accounting and accounting practices conducted at the corporate level. The two main goals of accounting policy is to firstly focus upon the importance of accounting systems for the private sector and secondly it is to be utilized by the government sector. Different countries place different level of importance on accounting. There are two kinds of users of accounting and accounting systems, these include the macro and the micro level users. The main difference between these users is the intention of using accounting information, this means that macro level users use it for different purposes and micro level users use it for different purposes (MA, 1997, p.198). Those who are referred to as macro level users include government agencies that uses accounting information for the purpose of economic planning and development. Those who are referred to as micro users are the ones who provide the capital and are given utmost importance in society. Body The two different users and the way they use accounting in different manners is quite evident in the role played by accounting in capital markets. For example in areas such as US and Canada, the system of accounting in these nations is micro user level and the broader aim of the accounting policy is to provide financial statements that are unbiased and fair (Flesher, 2010, p.66). When the emphasis is paid to providing fair and truthful accounting information, the organizations within these nations are expected to disclose their financial transactions in a reliable and credible manner. Transaction conducted by the organizations that follow the micro user level accountancy aims at achieving economic substance rather than conforming to rules and regulations set by the country. Nations that follow the macro user level accountancy system do not operate while aim at achieving fairness in providing accou nting details and information. Traditionally the main aim of accounting has been to safeguard the loss of assets that take place in a secretive manner. This aim of accountancy was obtained by reporting less than the actually amount of assets owned and profit made by an organization. At the domestic level capital markets, the aim of accountancy is to achieve optimum level corporate governance. At the domestic level, those nations that follow micro user accounting systems, the main role of accounts and accountants is to provide reliable accounting information in order to evaluate the performance of the management. Management’s performance is measured through several means and the main way proposed is to how well they keep track of the organizations earning, dividends and cash flows. The main aim of the management is to increase the profit of the organization and for this they end up producing biased accounting reports and due to this there is a need to provide, unbiased and neu tral accounting reports to decrease the conflict between the management and the owners of the business (Wolk, 2001, p.217). There have been ample amount of debate surrounding the impact of accounting on a businesses profits and well being, this have increase the possibility that certain methods of accountancy can be utilized to obtained desired aims and objectives. The aims and objectives that can be obtained include increasing competitiveness of

Friday, October 18, 2019

Leadership in management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Leadership in management - Essay Example Opposed to this trait theory of leadership, evolved a system of understanding called the behavioural theories of leadership. Behavioural theories of leadership are based upon the idea that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviourism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders, not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. According to behaviourism, behaviour can be studied in a systematic and observable manner with no consideration of internal mental states. Behavioral theories of leadership do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. Rather, they look at what leaders actually do. If success can be defined in terms of describable actions, then it should be relatively easy for other people to act in the same way. This is easier to teach and learn then to adopt the more ephemeral traits or capabilities. Thus , Behavioral leadership is a big leap from Trait Theory, in that it assumes that leadership capability can be learned, rather than being inherent. This opens the floodgates to leadership development, as opposed to simple psychometric assessment that sorts those with leadership potential from those who will never have the chance. A behavioral theory is relatively easy to develop, as you simply assess both leadership success and the actions of leaders. With a large enough study, you can then correlate statistically significant behaviors with success.

Is Investment a Matter of Evaluating Risk or Simply Luck Essay

Is Investment a Matter of Evaluating Risk or Simply Luck - Essay Example Most goals in personal investment are straightforward, in that individuals may be preserving their assets, saving for his or her retirement, funding his or her pension plan, or he or she is meeting a university spending requirement (Finke & Huston, 2003). Harrison et al., (2009), Bajtelsmit and Bernasek (2007), and Finke and Huston (2003) emphasize that personal investment constraints can be simple or complex depending on the individual and the current investment situation. The primary constraint which, individual experiences the tolerance level that an individual has the market risk. Potential return and the market risks are related, in that the desire of an individual to experience a greater return will need his or her exposure to higher market risks (Papke, 2008). In most investment cases, the time horizon is another fundamental constraint. A good example is a university endowment that has an infinite horizon has risks which are unwise for an investor who is looking to invest in his or her child’s education (Duflo & Saez, 2009). Other investment constraints include liquidity requirements, exposure to taxes, legal issues, and other factors such as avoiding some investments. Constraints on personal investments change with time and an individual must carefully study and research on these constraints before deciding on investing in any investment plan. The review provides a discussion of the technical analysis concepts. It reviews on the module showing how it works, depicting two advantages and two disadvantages. The literature reviews on the fundamental analysis, showing how the module works. The research shows two advantages and disadvantages of the analysis. Part two of the research entails the working of the random walk theory, showing and explains how it works.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

OSCE's new Vision under the chairmanship of Kazakhstan Article

OSCE's new Vision under the chairmanship of Kazakhstan - Article Example The organization is a primary instrument for warning, conflict prevention, crisis management and post conflict rehabilitation dealing with three dimensions of security – the politico – military, the economic and environmental and the human dimension, which are also referred to as three baskets on OSCE which addresses the wide range of security related concerns, including arms control, confidence – and – security building measures, human rights, national minorities, democratization, policing, strategies, counter – terrorism, and economic and environmental activities. Politico – military aims at formulating mechanisms for conflict prevention and resolution while seeking to enhance military security by promoting greater openness, transparency and cooperation. The economic and environmental dimension includes the monitoring of developments among participating states while alerting them of any threat of conflict and assisting the creation of econo mic and environmental policies and related initiatives to promote security in OSCE region. The human dimension aims at ensuring full respect to human rights and fundamental freedoms; to abide by the rule of law, to promote the principles of democracy by building, strengthening and protecting democratic institutions, and to promote tolerance throughout the OSCE area ( McKenzie and Rupp (1998, 119) stated that OSCE reflects the challenges facing multilateral cooperation in new and volatile era. The members of OSCE have committed themselves to promote security operation. Freire mentioned that post 9/11, most of the countries were concerned about the terrorism issues and OSCE was no exception in focusing on the need to respond to terrorism as a source of instability and an obstacle to the spread of democratization and rule of law principles (190). According to Cordell (1999, 62) the organization was the only international forum that

Realism, Liberalism, and the English School Research Paper

Realism, Liberalism, and the English School - Research Paper Example The Realist school makes it clear that States are to act to secure their fundamental national interest in foreign policy, and in this way are countered by the school of Liberalism in foreign policy. The Liberal school of foreign policy believes that the ideals, ideologies, and cultural principles of the nation are what the government and its ministers should also advocate through international relations. In this manner, the Liberal school critiques the moral nature of the Realist school, inferring that what is called â€Å"reality† in this interpretation is merely a projection of the self-serving interests of power and generally minority or oligarchic interests. In this manner, the ideals that are derived from moral principles can also be implemented as a goal in foreign policy through Liberalism. An example of this would be the internationalization of human rights and democratic principles through treaty accords. There is a third school of international relations that can be viewed as a synthesis of the schools of Liberalism and Realism. The English School, developed through the experience of British Empire building, advocates the pursuit of liberal principles and ideas internationally through foreign policy but doing so in a realistic manner that is not in conflict with essential national interests. The assumptions of each of the schools are found in prior judgments that are part of the system of thought or belief system that the philosophies operate through in foreign policy.... sumptions of each of the schools are found in a priori judgments that are part of the system of thought or belief system that the philosophies operate through in foreign policy. For example, the Realist school can be seen as an empirical and materialist philosophy, in that it focuses on specific gains that can be measured, planned for, and rationally studied to determine the extent of accomplishment. The Realist school projects the self-interest of the individual in a macro-framework as the State, and in this manner favors the centralization of power in one individual, as in a monarchy, dictatorship, prime minister, or president. The Realist school bases its definition of the State on the centralization of power, as this authority in military, finance, and legal statutes are assumed to be able to be mobilized upon a common policy of government in international relationships that attain concrete goals. As the Realist school is based on a type of calculation in power relations with obj ectives established in advanced and accomplished through strategic planning, it enables the development of International Relations as a formal discipline, similar to economics and law. The Liberal school generally accepts the a priori judgment of the Realists, but seeks to reform it on the principles of Humanism. In theory, where the Realists trace their lineage back to Machiavelli, Hobbes, Adam Smith, and Hume, the Liberal school looks to Rousseau as the exemplar and archetype of progressive philosophy applied in a humanistic manner for the purpose of freedom and human liberation. In this regard, while the Realist school may have no moral objection to enslave, coerce, or dominate a local population if it furthered the aims of the State as defined by those in power, the Liberal school would

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

OSCE's new Vision under the chairmanship of Kazakhstan Article

OSCE's new Vision under the chairmanship of Kazakhstan - Article Example The organization is a primary instrument for warning, conflict prevention, crisis management and post conflict rehabilitation dealing with three dimensions of security – the politico – military, the economic and environmental and the human dimension, which are also referred to as three baskets on OSCE which addresses the wide range of security related concerns, including arms control, confidence – and – security building measures, human rights, national minorities, democratization, policing, strategies, counter – terrorism, and economic and environmental activities. Politico – military aims at formulating mechanisms for conflict prevention and resolution while seeking to enhance military security by promoting greater openness, transparency and cooperation. The economic and environmental dimension includes the monitoring of developments among participating states while alerting them of any threat of conflict and assisting the creation of econo mic and environmental policies and related initiatives to promote security in OSCE region. The human dimension aims at ensuring full respect to human rights and fundamental freedoms; to abide by the rule of law, to promote the principles of democracy by building, strengthening and protecting democratic institutions, and to promote tolerance throughout the OSCE area ( McKenzie and Rupp (1998, 119) stated that OSCE reflects the challenges facing multilateral cooperation in new and volatile era. The members of OSCE have committed themselves to promote security operation. Freire mentioned that post 9/11, most of the countries were concerned about the terrorism issues and OSCE was no exception in focusing on the need to respond to terrorism as a source of instability and an obstacle to the spread of democratization and rule of law principles (190). According to Cordell (1999, 62) the organization was the only international forum that

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Not Real Apology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Not Real Apology - Essay Example Although both Lewinsky and Clinton initially both refuted the affair before a grand jury. They eventually admitted to the affair on national television. Clinton later on apologized to his family, the American people and to God for the affair. By conducting a rhetorical analysis of the speech that was given by President Clinton as he apologized, this paper will seek to argue that President Clinton did not want to make an apology to his family and country. An analysis of President Clinton’s speech in his apology reveals some elements that hint at the probability that President Clinton did not really want to apologize to his family and America. These elements include: In his speech, President Clinton alludes to the fact that he had just finished testifying before both the grand jury and the Office of Independent Counsel (OIC). He mentioned that although he had answered the questions in a truthful manner, he had answered a number of questions pertaining to his own private life; questions which he points out no American citizen would ever want to answer. This statement hints at the fact that President Clinton might have been forced to answer a number of questions which he was not quite comfortable with answering. The opening statement also suggests that it is quite possible that Clinton was using the speech not as an apology, but as a means to denounce the OIC and the Grand Jury for the fact that he had been forced to answer a number of private questions pertaining to himself. This position is further strengthened by the fact that in his next paragraph, Clinton does not apologize but instead argues that during a deposition that had been conducted in January, although he had not volunteered any information, his answers during the deposition had been legally accurate. Clinton does not apologize for his relationship with Miss Lewinsky but instead terms it as having been wrong. Immediately after terming the relationship as a personal

Monday, October 14, 2019

Repression in Russia in the period 1900-1929 Essay Example for Free

Repression in Russia in the period 1900-1929 Essay Why did the rulers of Russia so often resort to repression in the period 1900-1929? Repression was used under both Nicholas 2 and the Bolsheviks to control the Russian population. The liberal methods employed preceding both governments (Alexander 2 and the Provisional Government respectively) failed completely and discouraged any other form of liberal or democratic controls. The strict extremist ideologies of both the Tsarist and Bolshevik regimes also necessitated violent repression to ensure total compliance. This was needed due to the major political upheavals taking place the decline of Tsarism despite Nicholas determination to continue his autocratic rule and the rise of Bolshevism to replace it meant that both parties needed to take a very harsh line. This was exacerbated by the fact that neither party came to power with the legitimate vote of the public and so faced strong opposition that they wished to eliminate. Conflict, in the form of Civil War and the Great War, was an apparent complication in both regimes. This caused additional economic disarray and social disruption, hindering the plans of the 2 major governments of this era. Consequently this encouraged the use of repression in an attempt to resurrect the country and increase their power. Further difficulties during this period were caused by Russias long term long problems, particularly the vast land area and a high percentage of distinct ethnic minorities causing a lack of cohesion and sense of national identity. Bad communications and retardation of industrialisation meant poor social conditions which led to vocal rebellious groups requiring violent put downs i.e. repression. Russia, at this time, appeared ungovernable without resorting to repression and dictation. Repression was seeded by the lack of an alternative available to Russian rulers at this time. The Bolsheviks were further discouraged from democracy by the failure of the Provincial Government after just 6 months in 1917. The refusal of this government to use repression was highlighted by some of the reforms they undertook abolition of capital punishment and closure of the Okhrana (secret police) and the Cossacks. Lack of army support due to the Petrograd Soviet agreement made control harder as the problems left by the Tsar (economic collapse and rebellious minorities) could not be dealt with. The public began to realise that authority could be easily flouted without the threat of punishment. Consequently, Lenin realised that coercion was required to rule Russia and that repression through the Army could be achieved when his slogan All power to the Soviet was realised. Alexander 2, grandfather to Nicholas 2, was seen as the reforming Tsar- mainly due to his emancipation of the serfs in 1861. He was assassinated by a party representing these very people at the 7th such attempt. Nicholas 2 realised (as the failure of the Provincial Government was to do for the Bolsheviks) that power was questioned when repression was not implemented. Although Lenin also used repression, the similarity in personalities between Nicholas 2 and Stalin meant that both used similar methods. Both were intensely paranoid about the publics perception that they were weak. To disprove this, both resorted to violent repressive tactics. Repression under Lenin was more calculated he talked of the coercion needed for the transition from capitalism to communism. Both governments were autocratic and wished to impose extreme ideologies and therefore required total support which they believed was only achievable by quashing any opposition. Total control was to be achieved by the Tsars divine right to have this and by the Bolsheviks through their classless, one party state. This was shown when Lenin forcibly disbanded the constitution in 1918, because the Bolsheviks would not have had the majority vote they needed for the total control they sought. As a result Lenin became the leader of the only powerful party- the Communists. Later, Stalin increased his control through purges within his own government ensuring his role as the absolute leader reflecting the Tsars goal of omnipotence following the Fundamental Laws. The Tsar required repression of the peasantry (80% of the population) whereas the Bolsheviks faced opposition from the middle and upper classes. Tsarism relied heavily on religion (the Russian Orthodox Church/ROC) to control the people whereas the Bolsheviks saw this as a threat. The ROC taught that the Tsar was God on earth in an attempt to indoctrinate the peasantry to such an extent that they would do as he commanded. Important ministers were often associated with the Church e.g. Pobiedonotstev. After the downfall of Tsarism, Lenin proclaimed the Marxist theory that religion was the opium of the people and proceeded to turn repression onto the church to rid Russia of this perceived powerful opponent to the communist system. Stalin continued the destruction of religion in Russia through the assassination of any cleric he felt had too much influence. The Tsar and the Bolsheviks both faced threatening opposition. The Tsars opponents ranged from the peasant-based Social Revolutionaries (who would later become the Bolsheviks opponents) to the Bolsheviks themselves supported by the working class. The failure of the 1905 revolution after the intervention of the Okhrana and army showed that the Tsar could not have retained power without repression. The Okhrana were also used to rid Russia of revolutionaries such as Lenin himself. The Bolsheviks shared the problems caused by the ethnic minorities and their wish for independence. However, The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk weakened this opposition for the Bolsheviks after it removed 25% of Russian land mainly that housing the minorities. Both regimes faced a wide range of opposition, prompting repression to remove the greatest threats such as the dissolution of the SR-dominated constitution in 1918. Lenin reduced the power of the elite by taking their property and institutions from them. Stalin continued and extended the use of repression eliminating any minor threat, including members of the Communist Party in his Great Purges Conflict encouraged the rulers during this period to resort to repression. The Tsar faced the Russo-Japanese war and the Great War during his reign. The Bolsheviks had to contend with a Civil War. In both cases, repression was used to evoke loyalty and force unification. The Cossacks and Ohkrana were fundamental to the suppression of objectors to the Tsar, as were the Bolshevik equivalents, the Cheka. The Cheka aided Bolshevik victory in the Civil War and were then used by Lenin to forcibly take grain for the soldiers under the Grain Requisition Act despite the distress caused to the peasants. The Tsar also used repression to keep Russia fighting in the Great War including the silencing of anti-war parties and also opposition to the mandatory food rationing by a hungry people. Despite these efforts, war finally brought the downfall of Tsarism after mass desertion from the army effectively took away the last prop of the old regime. The Bolsheviks however, emerged successfully from the Civil War allowing them to consolidate their new-found power with the use of additional repression. Retarded Industrialisation was a long-term problem that is still felt by Russia today. The Tsar attempted to improve Russias industrial affluence whilst maintaining control by repressing the working classes to prevent them revolting. To do this, he banned trade unions and imprisoned the leaders. The Communists also attempted to improve Russias industrial situation- through the conversion from capitalism to communism. The Tsar sought support from other European countries whereas the Communists violently rejected this policy. This meant that the Communists required a greater level of forced labour (i.e. repression) in order to cope without this aid. Stalin hoped to develop Russia into a superpower in his 5-year plans. This involved the use of the forced free labour of non-conformists who were imprisoned in labour camps. The Kulaks (wealthy peasants) were among those sent to such a camp. Collectivisation was a re-introduction of the Grain Requisition and an attempt to revolutionise agriculture along Communist lines and resulted in starvation of the rural population. This repression of the peasantry was also evident in the Tsarist regime to prevent unrest. The long-term problems experienced by Russia at this time encouraged the use of repression as a means of control. The huge population spread over a vast land area meant that in addition to the communication problems caused by sheer size and the abundance of minority groups, it was impossible for any government to meet the demands made by all of the people. The Tsar attempted to deal with this through the enforcement of Russfication and sending the army to eliminate any protesters e.g. in Uzbekistan. The Bolsheviks also faced the minority opposition with violent repression millions of Ukrainians were sent to forced labour camps by Stalin. Prejudice against ethnic groups was rife; anti-Semitism caused repression of Jews under both Tsarist and Bolshevic regimes. Although it can be said that the governments of Nicholas 2, Stalin and to a lesser extent Lenin were repressive by nature, the need for control via repression was inherent within the set up of Russia. Until the fall of communism in Russia in the late 20th century, it was clearly evident that the more lenient governments, such as that of Alexander 2 and Provisional Government were less successful than the more repressive ones although they were hardly given chance to do well, so quick were some to take their place at the first sign of weakness. This acted as an encouragement for the major governments between 1900-1929 to use the secret police, army and threat of imprisonment to deter opposition, repress the peasantry and enforce the ideologies of the government. Repression was imperative for both governments; the Tsarist to cling to power and the Communists to snatch it from them. Both had many unpopular economic, political and social reforms to pass. War highlighted the problems of the country and the presence of strong opposition against both governments. In the view of both it increased the need for repression to realign the economic and social structure. Under both regimes the cause and the effect of repression was the same; it resulted in the death or displacement of many. Unfortunately, it was just a prelude to the terror that was to be experienced during the High-Stalinism of the 1930s. During this decade, 7 million died, mostly after being sent to a labour camp for failing to conform to the Communist ideal of collectivisation.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Localized Value Proposition Analysis for Toyota

Localized Value Proposition Analysis for Toyota Introduction Toyota motor company, who started a comprehensive partnership with FAW (First Auto Works) in 2002, has achieved great success in China, the market share expanding from 2.4% in 2003 to 7.3% in 2004 (data from JACCPCM, Joint Advisory Committee of China Passenger Car Market). The key concept of Toyotas successful strategy in China is localization to generate localized value proposition for consumers, which is different from Toyotas global policy. Localization is the key concept of a multi-national corporations strategy to enter a new country, which is an important method to establish it. Therefore, how to generate a localized strategy is a priority for these corporations. This essay will define localization which may lead the corporations to success in a new country, then identify the three elements of localization strategy: product strategy, marketing strategy and management strategy, furthermore assess the risks that localized strategy bring out. The core concept of localization is l ocal manufacturing and local sales. When a multi-national corporation enters a country, the primary question is what kind of products they can offer to the local consumers, and whether they will be accepted. Since different countries have different needs, the products can be adjusted according to the local consumers taste. The following question is how to sell products to local consumers. As the business environment and issues vary from one country to another, the firms marketing mix may have to undergo significant adaptation and adjustment. Effective marketing in this environment will boost the companys volume sale because of reflecting of local culture in positive way. Product strategy is for developing and supplying locally customized products, which is the foundation of the localization strategy, including three following aspects. First of all, products must be manufactured locally, because manufacturing operations in local can take advantage of resources, such as raw materials and human resource; and make the price of product competitive avoiding import taxes or trade barriers. In addition, the company can obtain the support of local government for the contribution to local economies and industrial development, which is also beneficial for local selling. Secondly, more localized exterior and interior design should be adapted to fit consumers taste. One product is popular in one country, which cannot guarantee that it will be also successful in other countries. Consequently, the company must be aware of the local consumers preference and taste, and wide coverage of product for diversified consumers needs. For example, Coca-Cola sells new flavours specifically for Europe: its Turkish division marketed a pear-flavoured drink, while the German division sold a berry-flavoured Fanta (Onkvisit Shaw, 2004), which are varied according to different customers tastes. Furthermore, the product should fit for the local culture and traditional. The example of the marke ting of fire insurance in different countries can illustrate this reason. For American consumers, it is sensible and practical to purchase fire insurance. However, in Brazil, where people belief that fire insurance may encourage fire accidents, it is difficult to encourage Brazilian consumers to purchase insurance (Onkvisit Shaw, 2004). Last but not least, purchasing from local suppliers is also a crucial issue for product strategy, which influences the product quality and long term profitability. Suppliers as business partners should be strict selected and sometimes long term patience should be had for improvement of local suppliers to meet corporations requirements. Strategy A successful localized strategy emphasizes not only on product but also on adapted brands and packages to meet the particular preferences and needs of customers. That is, in order to increase selling locally, an efficient marketing strategy is needed, which include advertising, personal selling, and sales promotion. As a new brand enters a market, more intensive marketing is necessary to increase brand recognition and perception which will attract consumers. More specifically, advertising on mass media is an efficient method to increase the brand recognition. Another important factor of marketing strategy is personal selling in which a company can invest. Since satisfaction during the buying process and quality of after services are becoming crucial for companys reputation, the capability of sales rep, professionalism and honest quotation for instance, will influence the branding and sales. Finally, sales promotion contains those promotional activities other than personal selling and advertising, such as coupons, discounting, demonstration and samples, which can push the local consumers to accept new products rapidly. Furthermore, the design of promotional activities should be based on local consumers consuming behaviour which is determined by local culture. For instance, Suspicion and privacy in some countries can limit the effectiveness of promotional activities, such as door-to-door selling and other direct selling methods. The awareness to local culture can make a firm more customer oriented, and the marketing strategy will be developed more likely flexible and efficient. A company can use localized management to conquer keen competition across regions with local OEM (original equipment manufacturer), especially in risk management, decision making structure and human recourse. Firstly, to avoid risk of uncertainty, a company should conduct flexible manufacturing facilities and management. For example, Toyota in China limited the level of mechanism and hired more workforces to keep flexibility, by which Toyota can avoid the investment risk at the early stage. Secondly, decision making structure in local companies is a significant issue of management, which may be delegated to enable quick decision making for local company. Since the keen competitive environment of local regions, the market changes rapidly, the headquarters may not respond timely. As a result, the company may lose its competitive edge or opportunities. Another aspect is human resource management, which is a critical part of management strategy. The company may invest in local human resource education and retaining workforce, which will enhance the capabilities of local workers. Meanwhile, although the managerial level of local staff could be intended to improve, company should still have a certain number of domestic staff, who will keep their core strategy in place. System A systemically localization strategy may help an international corporation enter a new country successfully. However, localized strategy may also bring some risks. A firm should be respect and accept local culture; nevertheless, a firm follow the local tradition blindly may lose some market opportunities, while a firm can also create a new business different from local culture. For example, Kelloggs, who sold dry cereal in South America and Asia, successes in establishing the new eating habits which is different from local tradition, and Kelloggs expanded its business network abroad(Onkvisit Shaw, 2004). On the other hand, in some special industries, especially luxury goods, localized strategy should be cautioned. When a firms brand concept clash with localization concept, it is necessary for the firm to make a choice or balance between them. Louis Vuitton for instance, would not be marketed as a local product in China. But at most situation, that choice is difficult to decide becau se of the following risk. At first, localization strategy can make the local consumer accept the product quickly at the price of damaging the brand image. Moreover, localization strategy implementation need long term preparation and vast investment, which furthermore increase the financial risk. Another risk a firm may face to in the localizations procedure is culture conflict in management. When a firm enter a new country, two different cultures may clash, which may engender low efficiency and internal contradiction, even bankrupt. For example, in a Japanese firm in Europe, the local employees have to face to a totally distinct management model. It is necessary for the firm to decade whether keep its core strategy in place or finding local methods to execute it. Conclusion In conclusion, localized value proposition generated by local optimization, which should integrate the product, marketing and management strategy in the local culture background. Product strategy is the foundation of localization for supplying customized products. The marketing strategy is the key of localization for selling and profiting. The management strategy is the way to conduct localization. Furthermore, to increase its efficiency and competitiveness while adding value to its products, a firm should respect and adapt to local culture. However, the opportunities always associate with the risk. Localization brings certain risks to companies. It is necessary for a firm to consider carefully about the factors of localization strategy.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Medieval Outlook on the Bubonic Plague Essay -- Biology Medical Biomed

The Medieval Outlook on the Bubonic Plague The Black Death was a major factor in the history of Europe as well as the history of the world. Rivaling the effects of an immense bioterrorist attack, the Black Death was responsible for the taking of over 25 million lives. Creating economic, societal, and medical changes, the Black Death forced Europe to essentially recreate its entire groundwork. At the time of the Black Death, medicine remained very archaic, and European society scrambled to find a cure to this mysterious disease. This study ponders the effects of medieval methods of treatment on this once ravaging disease. The Middle Ages was a dark time for the people of Europe. As the Black Death reigned during the mid-14nth century, dead bodies littered the streets, social order was abandoned, and human pretenses were forgotten. This deadly disease resulted in a complete alteration in the foundations of Europe itself. Unique practices, myths, and beliefs manifested themselves in the people?causing them to doubt the very church and government which had once captured their undoubting faith. Despite the scrambling of both doctors and church officials, there seemed no end to the enormous death tolls. The plague, feared and dreaded by all, changed the behavior of an entire continent and resulted, ultimately, in the death of a third of its population. European society did not understand the disease?partly because the plague itself changed form?and thus strove to find a cure. Two main types of plague predominated in the time of the Black Death?the bubonic and the pneumonic. Both types of diseases are caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis but vary in methods of transmission . Although the bubonic plague is not contagious and can o... ...sease. The medieval outlook on the plague, mingled with feelings of hysteria and greed, was a fearful one. Bibliography 1.Historical Blood Beliefs. Medical Blood. July 20, 2005: ttp:\ Medieval Outlook on the Bubonic Plague 6 2.Jarret C. et al Transmisson of Yersinia Pestis from an infectious biofilm in the flea vector. Journal of Infectious Disease (2004) v 190 I4 p783 3.Stevenson, J. (2004, Sept.). Impact of Infectious Diseases on Development of Human Societies. MBI. July 18, 2005: http://cas/`stevenjr/mbi111/impact111.html. 4.The Black Death. The History of Bubonic Plague. December 2, 2003: 5. Persecution of Jews. Europe in the Late Middle Ages: Ages.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Answer Key for Effective Writing 3

Answer Key Booklet 2 Contents Answer Key Unit 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Unit 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Unit 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Unit 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Unit 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Unit 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Great Clarendon Street, Oxford o x2 6dp UK The Publisher grants permission for the photocopying of those pages marked â€Å"photocopiable† according to the following conditions. Individual purchasers may make copies for their own use or for use by classes they teach.School purchasers may make copies for use by their staff and students. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer. 1 198 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016 USA Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices inAny websites referred to in this publication are in the public domain and their addresses are provided by Oxford University Press for information only. Oxford University Press disclaims any responsibility for the content. oxford and o xford english are registered trademarks of Oxford University Press Executive Publisher: Janet Aitchison Senior Acquisitions Editor: Pietro Alongi Associate Editor: Scott Allan Wallick Art Director: Maj-Britt Hagsted Production Manager: Shanta Persaud Production Controller: Eve Wong  © Oxford University Press 2007 isbn: 978- 0-19-430884-7 Database right Oxford University Press (maker)Printed in Hong Kong All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of Oxford University Press, with the sole exception of photocopying carried out under the conditions that follow. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Answer Key Unit  The Five-Paragraph Essay 4 . No, the conclusion in the five-paragraph essay is not ifferent from that of the short essay on page 3 . Part 1: Stimulating Ideas Part 2: Developing the Five-Paragraph Essay Exercise 2 (pp. 3â€⠀œ4) Exercise  (p. 9) A . 1 . a 2 . b 3 . c B . Answers will vary. 1 . To achieve this goal, I focused on three points: the content of an essay, correct grammar, and advanced level vocabulary . It is the thesis of the essay because it states what the entire essay is about . 2 . As soon as I started to write for college, I realized that college writing was different from the writing I was used to doing . It is the topic sentence because it states what the body paragraph is about . . The details in the body paragraph give explanations and examples to support the topic sentence . 4 . It sums up the ideas of the essay, and it brings it to a close . Exercise 3 (pp. 5–7) A . Answers will vary. B . 1 . Thesis statement: â€Å"To achieve this goal, I focused on three points: the content of an essay, correct grammar, and advanced level vocabulary . † No, the thesis statement is not different from the thesis statement of the short essay on page 3 . 2 . Each topic sentence suppo rts the thesis statement . First body paragraph topic sentence: â€Å"As soon as I started to write for college, I realized that college riting was different from the writing I was used to doing . † Second body paragraph topic sentence: â€Å"I realized I had to improve my understanding of grammar in order to write for college . † Third body paragraph topic sentence: â€Å"I soon realized that academic writing required a much more sophisticated vocabulary . † 3 . The body paragraphs of the five-paragraph essay expand on the information provided in the single body paragraph of the short essay by giving examples and anecdotes . The body paragraphs of the five-paragraph essay are more analytical in nature . 1 . Hook: â€Å"It was a sunny day in the summer of 1998 hen my family moved out of the city to the suburbs . † 2 . I did not like leaving because I would lose my friends and the places where I had had so much fun . It was very sad for me to see my friend s standing in front of the old house as we said our last goodbyes . 3 . Thesis statement: â€Å"Little did I know that this move would turn out to be one of the best moments of my life . † 4 . Topic: â€Å"Little did I know that this move . . . † 5 . Controlling idea: â€Å" . . . would turn out to be one of the best moments of my life . † Exercise 2 (p. 0) Body Paragraph 1 Answers will vary. 1 . As soon as I started to write for college, I realized hat college writing was different from the writing I was used to doing . 2 . The writer gives supporting details . In high school, most of the writer’s writing dealt with personal experiences with family, childhood, and friends . In contrast, college writing is focused on a variety of unfamiliar issues, such as reacting to a piece of literature or writing about the community . The most important thing for the writer was to understand the assigned topic before attempting a first draft . The writer wanted to in clude examples, statistics, and direct quotations whenever possible for support . These etails support the topic sentence because they elaborate on the topic sentence . 3 . b Body Paragraph 2 Answers will vary. 1 . I realized that I had to improve my understanding of grammar in order to write for college . 2 . The writer gives supporting details . Before the writer came to college, grammar was not Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key  a strong point . The writer often created run-on sentences or sentence fragments . The writer was more concerned with what to say than how it was said . The professors would not accept this kind of writing and made the writer revise many times .Consequently, the writer made grammar the second priority . The writer reviewed the basic grammatical structures such as subjects and verbs and checked all work for verb tense consistency and punctuation . As a result, the writer’s work became more complex because the writer included transitional wor ds, gerunds, and embedded clauses . These details support the topic sentence because they elaborate on the topic sentence . 3 . a Body Paragraph 3 Answers will vary. 1 . I soon realized that academic writing required a much more sophisticated vocabulary . 2 . The writer gives supporting details . The writer as accustomed to writing letters and informal essays, so the writer usually wrote the way the writer speaks with family and friends . It was common for the writer to include slang and abbreviated terms, which were appropriate in social contexts but were unacceptable in formal essays . The writer’s third goal became improving vocabulary . The writer bought a dictionary and thesaurus, became more aware of how often the same words and phrases were repeated throughout the essay, and looked for synonyms to replace words that the writer thought were too simple for a college essay . The writer also focused ore on the rules of spelling and corrected any errors . These details supp ort the topic sentence because they elaborate on the topic sentence . 3 . a Exercise 3 (p. ) 1 . 3 2 . The first sentence restates the thesis: â€Å"Academic writing requires critical thinking skills, an understanding of the topic, high level vocabulary, and correct grammar . † 3 . d Part 3: Unity and Coherence Exercise  (p. 2) Having my friends and family together at my wedding was an amazing experience . I had not seen some of my uncles, cousins, and aunts for many years . My cousin Tom lives in London, where he works as 2Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key an engineer . Both my mother and father were born in different countries, so my relatives are scattered all over the world . I really like traveling and have been to Europe and Asia . Although we try to get together for important occasions, this was the first time everyone could attend . Most importantly, my good friends had never met my relatives . Developing good friendships takes a lot of work . Watching them all dancing, laughing, and having a wonderful time will stay in my memory forever . The band we hired played music that the guests loved and we danced for hours .My original guest list had over 200 people, but I had to cut it down to 150 . It was difficult finding a group that could play all the diverse styles that I wanted at the wedding . Most bands specialize in one or two different kinds of music . However, these musicians really knew all types of music—from 1940s jazz and swing to salsa, merengue, and even hip-hop . My brother was once in a rock and roll band . In short, there was music to suit everyone’s tastes . I loved the singer’s dress . It was incredible . Even my grandparents danced all night . Exercise 2 (p. 4) 1 . a, c, d 2 . a, b, d, e Exercise 3 (p. 5) 2 . 3 . a Exercise 4 (p. 6) Answers will vary. 2 . Learning a foreign language takes a lot of patience and effort . Moreover, it helps to have a good ear and be able to spend some time in the h ost country . 3 . The college student was told to revise her essay a third time . Nevertheless, she has still made great progress with her writing skills . 4 . John Steinbeck, a famous American author, wrote many books concerning the human condition . For example, his novel The Grapes of Wrath dealt with the problems of the Great Depression . 5 . Academic writing requires standard grammar, sophisticated vocabulary, and proper rganization . In contrast, e-mail messages use abbreviations, symbols, and slang . 6 . Nowadays research is often done on the Internet . Previously, important information was stored on special film called microfiche. Exercise 5 (p. 7) Answers will vary. A . If you want to make rice, first boil some water . Next, add rice . Then cook for about 20 minutes . B . If you want to learn Spanish, the most important thing is to take a Spanish class . The second priority is to practice speaking Spanish with friends . Then visit a Spanish-speaking country . Exercise 6 (p . 8) 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . She this they we s They us Exercise 7 (p. 9) 2 . As a teenager, I reported on school events, edited articles for the high school newspaper, and published some of my stories . 3 . Some of the rewards of being an author are learning about historical events, researching the lives of famous people, and discovering facts about yourself . 4 . Attending workshops on writing has taught me how to receive criticism, become a more focused writer, and take more risks . Part 4: Editing Your Writing Exercise  (p. 20) 2 . I felt very confident because I had spent a long time practicing . 3 . Since it was my graduation, I bought a beautiful ew outfit . 4 . Although the ceremony was very long, nobody was bored . 5 . We went out for a fancy meal after the ceremony ended . 6 . My family took a lot of photographs which I still enjoy looking at . Exercise 2 (p. 2) 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . RO RO C RO C Exercise 3 (p. 22) 2 . The nineteenth-century British novelist Charlott e Bronte wrote Jane Eyre, and her younger sister Emily was the author of the classic Wuthering Heights . 3 . Upton Sinclair was concerned about social and political problems of his times, so he wrote The Jungle, exposing the unsanitary conditions of the meatpacking industry . 4 .Jane Austen’s original version of Pride and Prejudice was written when she was only twenty years old, yet it was not published for almost two decades . 5 . The anthropologist Margaret Mead went to Samoa to collect data for her book, for she was interested in researching the role of adolescent girls in a non-Western culture . 6 . Writers often use biographical information, or they adapt the background of other people for their story . Exercise 4 (p. 23) 2 . Margaret Mitchell was able to write the epic novel Gone with the Wind because she understood the decline of the southern plantation owners . 3 .Although Somerset Maugham was a doctor, he wrote many important novels, short stories, and plays . 4 . So me of the Harry Potter books have already been made into movies since they are so popular . 5 . When Wallace Stevens received the Pulitzer Prize for his collected poems, he was vice president of an insurance company . Exercise 5 (p. 24) Answers will vary. 2 . When I visited her, she showed me photos of her vacation . 3 . Because she had a demanding job, she never had time to visit with friends . 4 . Since I was her favorite, I always got a special gift . 5 . After she got married, she started working owntown . Exercise 6 (p. 25) While I was visiting China, I (1) experienced experience a special kind of warmth from the people I (2) came come in contact with . I was always aware of their special quality of friendliness . I (3) had have the unique experience of being in Beijing on the night the Chinese (4) won win their bid to host the 2008 summer Olympics . On that night, I (5) was am one of a million and a half people who poured into the streets to express their joy and gratitude . I walked with them and (6) shook shake hands with as many people as I could while I sang out the words: â€Å"gong xi ni ba†Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key 3 (congratulations) . My words (7) were are always met with big smiles and enthusiastic handshakes . Those parents with kids on their shoulders, teenagers, and many others (8) felt feel as if the rest of the world was welcoming them into the global community . Now I wish them the best, and I am hoping to return one day . If you take a trip to China, you will experience the same kind of hospitality . Part 5: Putting It All Together Exercise 4 (p. 28) Exercise  (p. 26) 1 . Hook: â€Å"Difficult life-changing experiences become the memories that stay forever in our minds . † 2 .We have to learn to balance the positive and negative effects that these situations have on us . The day after I finished my first year at college, I had one of these life-changing experiences . 3 . Thesis statement: â€Å"Going on a j ob interview at an international bank taught me an important lesson . † 4 . Topic: Going on a job interview at an international bank . 5 . Controlling idea: The writer learned an important lesson . Exercise 2 (p. 26) a . 4 b . 1 c . 7 d . 3 e . 5 f . 2 g . 6 Exercise 3 (p. 27) A . I was in a rush to get there, (1) so I decided to take a taxi . The traffic was so horrible that the driver was in a bad mood . 2) When he He closed the door, my new skirt got caught . I tried desperately to pull it out, but it ripped . I thought about asking the driver to stop, (3) but I was too embarrassed to say anything . Although I was very upset (4) , . I tried to be calm . The ride was much longer than I expected, (5) and the air conditioning was not working . I did not want anything negative to block my mind (6) . I was eager to have this job . I wanted to have a good interview and make a strong impression (7) , since . Since I learned in school that first impressions are the most valuable . B . Finally when I arrived at the bank, I (1) looked ook at my skirt . The torn hem was hanging and was covered with dirt . Once inside, I (2) went go into the ladies room . I tried to wash my skirt and hold it together with a safety pin . A few minutes later, I was in the waiting room when the secretary (3) called call me . I was embarrassed and afraid that I wouldn’t get the job because of my sloppy appearance . The most interesting part was that the manager asked me what (4) happened 4 happen . When I (5) told tell her the story, she started to laugh . She (6) couldn’t can’t stop . She wanted to ask me something about myself, but she (7) kept keeps on aughing . Now I was sure I would not get the job . She said, â€Å"I will never forget this . I never thought that I (8) would will have such a good time today . You know, when you have to interview a lot of people in one day, it can become very boring . † Despite this ordeal, she assured me that I had th e right qualifications, and in the end she offered me the position . Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key 1 . We never know when a negative experience can end up being a positive influence on our life and can stay in our minds forever . 2 . d Exercise 5 (p. 28) 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . them it he it mine me us This Exercise 6 (p. 29) 1 . Sometimes when essays are written too quickly the sentences do not flow naturally . Therefore, you should always read your essay out loud to make sure it does . 2 . The sonnets of Shakespeare always rhyme . In contrast, modern poetry usually uses free verse that does not rhyme . 3 . Writing a good play requires a strong story line . Moreover, you need realistic dialogue and believable characters . 4 . William Shakespeare wrote comedies as well as tragedies . For example, The Taming of the Shrew and A Midsummer Night’s Dream both have happy endings . 5 .Computers have grammar and spell check . Nevertheless, a good writer should not depend on these tools . Exercise 7 (p. 30) 1 . A few years ago, I went to China to research a book, meet some old friends, and visit the famous temples . 2 . One day we toured the Ming Dynasty gardens, walked through the narrow streets, and visited the Great Wall . 3 . I ate with chopsticks, sampled spicy foods, and drank exotic teas . 4 . The Chinese are famous for creating silk screens, painting lacquer boxes, and inventing calligraphy . 5 . I enrolled in a Chinese culture class where I learned how to write a few characters, speak a ew words, and recognize the different tones of the language . Unit 2 Process Analysis Essays Part 1: Stimulating Ideas Exercise 3 (p. 34) will return home to eat and drink . The background information tells about celebration of the Day of the Dead . It tells when the celebration occurs and tells what the holiday is for . 3 . Thesis: â€Å"In my native town, Puebla, preparation begins three weeks before the holiday . † Answers will vary. 4 . Body paragraph 3 explains the process of families decorating and watching over the graves of dead relatives . 5 . a Part 3: Developing Your Ideas 5 . T Exercise  (p. 4) Answers will vary. . He had supernatural powers that helped him see the dead . 2 . Sonja’s offerings to the priests saved his mother . 3 . Families clean their homes, decorate the Buddhist altars, and light lanterns . 4 . Both children and adults participate in Bon Odori . 5 . Day of the Dead and Halloween Exercise 2 (p. 42) 1 . F 2 . T 3 . F 4 . T Exercise 4 (p. 34) Part 2: Brainstorming and Outlining Exercise 2 (p. 35) Answers will vary. 1 . Costumes: masks, makeup, traditional dress 2 . Foods: marshmallows, hamburgers, apple pie 3 . Music/Dance: national anthem, folk, circles 4 . Decorations: balloons, streamers, confettiExercise 3 (p. 36) Answers will vary. Exercise 4 (p. 38) A . 1 . The Day of the Dead is celebrated to remember the dead . 2 . People buy candles, incense, copal, fruit, flowers, and candies . 3 . The merchants build stalls to protect themselves and their products from the sunlight . 4 . Families go to the cemetery to decorate and to watch over the graves of dead relatives . 5 . Answers will vary. B . 1 . Hook: â€Å"Mexican culture is full of colorful traditions . † 2 . One of them is the celebration of the Day of the Dead . This special holiday for remembering the dead takes place on November 2 of every year . On hat day, families believe that their dead relatives The writer prepares a turkey for Thanksgiving dinner . A . 1 . The writer searched the Internet for recipes and got advice from friends . 2 . All the ingredients have to be fresh, especially the herbs . 3 . While the cornbread is baking, the other stuffing ingredients are being prepared . 4 . The size of the turkey determines the cooking time . 5 . Answers will vary . B . 1 . Hook: â€Å"The cashier gave me a free 12 pound turkey because my food receipt was over fifty dollars . † 2 . Thesis stat ement: â€Å"I did not know how to cook a turkey, but since I had gotten one, I decided it as a good opportunity to learn how . † Answers will vary. I wanted to learn how to cook a turkey, since I had gotten one at the supermarket . 3 . before, eventually, while, now, first, second, after, next, finally, then 4 . defrost, prepare, roast, take out, put in, take off, place, marinate, wash, poke, add, mix, brush, make, follow, bake, cut, saute, chop, cool off, mash up, fill, sew, cook 5 . Body paragraph 3 explains the steps in defrosting and preparing a turkey before it is roasted . 6 . The family said that the turkey was amazing and that the writer should prepare Thanksgiving dinner next year .Exercise 3 (p. 44) first, second, third, next, after this, then, finally Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key 5 Exercise 4 (p. 44) A . a . 6 c . 1 e . 2 b . 5 d . 3 f . 4 B . Before you begin, decide on a topic that you want to research . Second, review what has been written on the to pic . Third, organize the information in order of importance . Next, develop a term paper outline . After this, write the first draft of the paper . Finally, edit and revise your work . Exercise 5 (p. 45) 2 . Before you buy a computer disk, make sure it is compatible with your computer . Make sure the computer disk is compatible with our computer before you buy it . 3 . Before you use the new computer disk, format it . Format the new computer disk before you use it . 4 . After you save your essay on a disk, print it out . Print out your essay after you save it on a disk . 5 . As soon as you finish reading your email, log out . Log out as soon as you finish reading your email . 6 . After you close all programs, shut down the computer . Shut down the computer after you close all programs . Part 4: Editing Your Writing Exercise  (p. 49) 2 . Obon is celebrated by the Japanese in the summer . 3 . The fragrant fruit is protected from the sun by the talls . 4 . The grave must be guarded b y the relatives of the dead . 5 . The children were fascinated by the fireworks . 6 . Traditional food is sold to the families by the merchants . Exercise 2 (p. 50) 2 . Litter and trash should be picked up . 3 . Children must not be allowed to play with fireworks . 4 . Hot dogs and hamburgers must be cooked thoroughly . 5 . Music should not be played too loudly . 6 . Flags may be displayed in front of the houses . Exercise 3 (p. 50) 1 . Sushi is eaten in Japan . 2 . Many festivals are organized by the city government . 3 . Special breads and cakes are baked for the elebration . 4 . The turkey must be defrosted in the refrigerator . 6 Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key 5 . Green is worn by many people in the United States on Saint Patrick’s Day . 6 . A lot of flowers and chocolates are sold on Valentine’s Day . Exercise 4 (p. 5) 1 . X 2 . The gifts offered to the spirits are blessed by the families . 3 . X 4 . X 5 . The Buddhist altars are decorated by families . 6 . X Exercise 5 (p. 52) Every year, the falling autumn leaves signal the approach of Halloween . It is one of the most popular holidays in the United States, and it (1) is enjoyed by both children and adults .Many parties are held on this occasion when special costumes, masks, and wigs (2) are worn . Some of the most popular costumes that are (3) chosen chose are from children’s fairy tales as well as witches, ghosts, and famous movie stars . Prizes are often given for the most unusual and creative disguises . Faces are (4) painted paint with odd designs and colorful makeup . The fronts of many houses (5) are decorated with gravestones, monsters, and jack-o-lanterns . These lanterns are (6) made making from pumpkins, which are carved out to create scary faces . On the night of Halloween, children go trick-or-treating, which means oing from house to house to collect candy . For kids and adults alike, Halloween is great fun . But remember, young children should (7) to be acco mpanied by an adult at all times . Part 5: Putting It All Together Exercise  (p. 53) A . a . 2 c . 3 e . 1 b . 5 d . 6 f . 4 B . Answers will vary. First, check with your counselor for available scholarships . Second, select three or four scholarships that are appropriate for you . Third, go to the Internet and review the requirements . Next, request an application form . After this, complete the application . Finally, submit the application and wait for a response . Exercise 2 (p. 3) 1 . Before you enter a Japanese tea house, take off your shoes . or Take off your shoes before you enter a Japanese tea house . 2 . After you sit in the proper position, begin the ceremony . or Begin the ceremony after you sit in the proper position . 3 . As soon as you pour hot water into the tea bowl, stir the mixture . or Stir the mixture as soon as you pour hot water into the tea bowl . 4 . Before you taste the tea, admire the design of the bowl . or Admire the design of the bowl before you taste the tea . 5 . After you drink the tea, pass the bowl to the next person . or Pass the bowl to the next person after ou drink the tea . Exercise 3 (p. 54) 1 . Baseball players are idolized by the fans . 2 . Tickets can be bought on the Internet by fans . 3 . The games are often sponsored by large corporations . 4 . A special vest must be worn by the umpire . 5 . Baseball is watched by millions of viewers on TV . Exercise 4 (p. 54) 1 . Changes to the schedule must be approved by the principal . 2 . The electric drill must be plugged in . 3 . Banks and other businesses are closed on national holidays . 4 . Potatoes and other vegetables are grown in Idaho . 5 . A weekend edition is published by The New York Times . Exercise 5 (p. 55)In college, students have many responsibilities, and one of them is to understand the rules of the university . International students may be confused by some of these rules . For instance, on most American college campuses, alcohol consumption is (1) prohib ited prohibit because of the many alcohol-related deaths among young people . Educators believe that students should be (2) made make aware of the dangers of excessive drinking . Another issue is smoking in public spaces, which (3) is permitted in some countries around the world . In the majority of American schools, smoking is not (4) allowed allowing in the cafeterias, dormitories, and tudent unions . However, in most classrooms, food and drinks may (5) to be consumed . Before students enter a classroom or lecture hall, they are (6) expected expect to turn their cell phones off . Plagiarism and cheating on exams (7) is be not tolerated; serious consequences may result . Unit 3 Cause and Effect Essays Part 1: Stimulating Ideas Exercise 3 (p. 62) 1 . F 2 . F 3 . T 4 . T 5 . T Exercise 4 (p. 62) Answers will vary. 1 . While his peers spent money on fraternities and parties, Mighty invested in the stock market . He searched for answers on his own . 2 . He made a documentary while trav eling around he country asking people from many different backgrounds what they thought happiness was . 3 . You don’t need material wealth to enjoy your life; you just have to live it to the fullest . 4 . Answers will vary. 5 . Answers will vary. Part 2: Brainstorming and Outlining Exercise 2 (p. 64) Answers will vary. A . 1 . Happiness: love, friendship, success, enjoy 2 . Actions: complete, advance, finish, start 3 . Results: turn into, make possible, end result, culminate B . Answers will vary. 2 . Accomplishing your goals leads to peace of mind . 3 . Succeeding in a difficult situation brings about contentment . 4 .Completing a college degree makes it possible to enjoy a good career . 5 . Finishing what you started leads to selfsatisfaction . Exercise 3 (p. 65) A positive outlook helps you find happiness in relationships, keeps you healthy, and makes you more able to confront difficult situations . Exercise 4 (p. 66) Answers will vary. 1 . Hook: â€Å"Happiness is a stat e of being that everyone wants to achieve . † 2 . A positive outlook can help you be happy and change the outcome of your life . 3 . Thesis statement: â€Å"It can enrich your relationships, improve your health, and guide you through some of life’s greatest challenges . A positive outlook on life can make your relationships stronger, make you Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key 7 healthier, and give you the strength to face life’s most difficult moments . 4 . Body paragraph 1 topic: A positive outlook helps you find happiness in professional, social, and personal relationships . Body pargraph 2 topic: Having a positive outlook also makes a person healthy . Body paragraph 3 topic: Finally, people with positive outlooks are stronger and capable of confronting difficult situations . 5 . Laughter releases a chemical substance called serotonin into your blood stream; stress causes igh blood pressure, heart disease, and cancer 6 . The conclusion restates the intr oduction in different words . Part 3: Developing Your Ideas Exercise  (p. 69) According to the writer, family support, motivation, and the ability to focus lead to success in college . Exercise 2 (p. 70) Answers will vary. 1 . Students may experience self-doubt, face financial hardships, and be overwhelmed by the work load . 2 . They might be too tired to study after returning home late from their jobs, or they might decide to go to a party instead of studying . 3 . Students have many obligations to fill and may rrive home late at night, so they may find it difficult to finish their homework and make their studies a priority . 4 . You could waste valuable time and money if you aren’t focused . 5 . Answers will vary. Exercise 3 (p. 7) 2 . c 3 . a 4 . c 5 . a Exercise 4 (p. 73) 2 . Since people are receiving better medical treatment, they are living longer . or People are living longer since they are receiving better medical treatment . 3 . Because orchestras are trying to at tract a younger audience, reduced rates at concert halls are available for many high school students . or Reduced rates at concert halls are available for any high school students because orchestras are trying to attract a younger audience . 4 . Since research has shown that yoga reduces stress, more and more individuals are practicing it . or More and more individuals are practicing yoga since research has shown that it reduces stress . 8 Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key Exercise 5 (p. 73) 2 . As a result of the high pollen count, my allergies are very bad this season . 3 . Because of my excellent work, I received the highest grade in the class . 4 . Due to the destructive fire, the building had to be demolished . Exercise 6 (p. 74) 2 .The fire caused major damage to the school auditorium; consequently, we will have the performance in the town hall . or The fire caused major damage to the school auditorium . Consequently, we will have the performance in the town hall . 3. T he Great Depression was devastating; as a result, many farmers moved to California . or The Great Depression was devastating . As a result, many farmers moved to California . 4 . Airlines have cut back services; as a result, flights no longer provide meals . or Airlines have cut back services . As a result, flights no longer provide meals . 5 . The reviews were great; therefore, the theater dded more performances . or The reviews were great . Therefore, the theater added more performances . Part 4: Editing Your Writing Exercise  (p. 77) 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . If you study hard, you will pass the test . If you get a roommate, you will share the rent . If you go to bed early, you will wake up refreshed . If you read more, you will increase your vocabulary . Exercise 2 (p. 78) 2 . If I owned a car, I wouldn’t travel by bus . 3 . If people didn’t watch a lot of TV, they would read books . 4 . If I knew how to cook, I could make dinner for the whole family . 5 . If we have a lot of rain in the spring, I won’t go amping . Exercise 3 (p. 78) Answers will vary. 2 . I would buy a beach house if I had more money . 3 . If people receive better health care, they will live longer . 4 . I would learn a foreign language if I could go back to school . 5 . If home owners used solar energy, they would save money on their heating bills . Exercise 4 (p. 79) If you (1) like liked music, think about taking a music appreciation course . If you (2) would have any talent in that direction, you may want to join a choir . I joined a choir two years ago and I enjoy it very much . I know that if I didn’t have my rehearsals, I (3) would ill be very unhappy . I look forward to working with a conductor, learning challenging pieces, and singing with a group . If I (4) miss missed a rehearsal, I feel a little depressed . Even if we work on a difficult piece, I (5) would find the challenge exhilarating . If music is not the hobby for you, you should (6) find found one that can bring you happiness . If you do, you (7) will would not be sorry . Part 5: Putting It All Together Exercise  (p. 80) 1 . b 2 . a 3 . b 4 . c 5 . a 6 . c Exercise 2 (p. 8) 1 . The construction industry is thriving since there is a high demand for new housing . or Since there is high demand for new housing, the construction industry is thriving . 2 . Because of fierce competition for jobs, many young adults want to go to college . or Many young adults want to go to college because of fierce competition for jobs . 3 . Because people are living longer, second careers are more common . or Second careers are more common because people are living longer . 4 . Newspapers and magazines are losing subscribers since readers obtain more up-to-date information from the Internet . or Since readers obtain more up-to-date information from the Internet, newspapers and magazines are losing subscribers . 5 .Due to a great need for nurses, many students are entering the profession . or Many stud ents are entering the profession due to a great need for nurses . 6 . As a result of the building of the Suez Canal, ships are able to travel faster from the west to the east . or Ships are able to travel faster from the west to the east as a result of the building of the Suez Canal . Exercise 3 (p. 8) 1 . Microwaves are time-saving; therefore, people are cooking less . or Microwaves are time-saving . Therefore, people are cooking less . 2 . Crime rates are high; consequently, more police patrol the streets . or Crime rates are high .Consequently, more police patrol the streets . 3 . Globalization is increasing; as a result, English has become a more popular language . or Globalization is increasing . As a result, English has become a more popular language . 4 . Shopping malls are huge; consequently, consumers have more choices . or Shopping malls are huge . Consequently, consumers have more choices . 5 . Cell phones are convenient and economical; as a result, many people have canc elled their home service . or Cell phones are convenient and economical . As a result, many people have cancelled their home service . 6 . The exam was challenging; therefore, many tudents failed . or The exam was challenging . Therefore, many students failed . Exercise 4 (p. 82) 1 . If you work hard, you will succeed in your career . 2 . If you work at a job you like, you will accomplish more in less time . 3 . If you travel around the world, you will learn about new cultures . 4 . If you have a DVD drive, you will be able to watch movies on your computer . 5 . If you plant perennials, you will have flowers again next year . 6 . If you purchase tickets online, you will save money . Exercise 5 (p. 83) Answers will vary. 1 . If you did not play an instrument, you could not join an orchestra . 2 .If you had a long semester, you would have less vacation time . 3 . If we had a microwave, we wouldn’t cook everything on the stove . 4 . If I owned a laptop, I could work efficiently . 5 . If I had any credit cards, I would not pay with cash . Exercise 6 (p. 83) Today, people work long hours and have too many responsiblities; as a result, they have very little leisure time . If people spent more time with family and friends, they (1) would will be happier . Often parents do not have enough time to spend with their children . Therefore, young children do not receive the parental attention they need . If parents (2) had have more home ime, they could play games with their children, and participate in more school activities . If parents (3) spent Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key 9 spend more time with their children, children would do better in school . Furthermore, if workers had more leisure time, they (4) could can go on more family vacations . Teenagers (5) would have had more time to communicate with their parents if they did not have so many responsibilities . If leisure time (6) increased increase, the family unit would be stronger and society as a w hole would benefit . Unit 4 Argumentative Essays Part 1: Stimulating IdeasExercise 3 (p. 90) 1 . F 2 . T 3 . F 4 . T 5 . F 6 . F Part 3: Developing Your Ideas Exercise 4 (p. 90) Answers will vary. 1 . He is the first person to be charged with the crime of piracy, and other arrests may follow . 2 . Its function is to protect intellectual property between nations . 3 . They are losing large profits and are afraid they won’t survive . 4 . Answers will vary. 5 . Answers will vary. Part 2: Brainstorming and Outlining Exercise 2 (p. 92) A . law property legal break the rules commit a crime computers own a copyright download possession share files program B . Answers will vary. Exercise 3 (p. 93)Academic policy rules are broken by cheating and plagiarism . Exercise 4 (p. 95) Answers will vary. A . 1 . Some students plagiarize because it saves time . 2 . The writer feels that copying someone else’s work and submitting it as your own is not only immoral but also academically un acceptable . We know this because the writer says, â€Å"However, plagiarism is wrong because it is irresponsible as well as against academic policy . † 3 . They don’t develop their critical thinking and writing skills and they might fail their final exams . 0 4 . Answers will vary. 5 . Answers will vary. B . 1 . Hook: â€Å"College and high school students often ook for shortcuts to make their work easier . † 2 . Thesis statement: â€Å"However, plagiarism is irresponsible from a social and academic standpoint . † Answers will vary. Example: Plagiarism affects your relationships with your classmates and teachers, and it hinders your academic progress . 3 . d 4 . There are some students who feel that because they are so busy, they have no choice but to plagiarize . 5 . Three: Plagiarism damages classroom relationships, it also violates school policies, and it prevents students from realizing their own potential . Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key Exercise 2 (p. 99) Answers will vary. . The first reason the writer gives is that cable companies charge too much money for the service . 2 . The writer gives detailed price information for the various packages the cable company offers . These facts strengthen the writer’s argument, because they are specific examples of how the cable company’s prices can be very expensive . 3 . The quality of satellite service is inferior, and many buildings do not allow tenants to use satellite dishes . 4 . Cable companies say they are losing money and that getting free cable is against the law . 5 . Answers will vary. Exercise 3 (p. 00) 1 . R 2 . C 3 . C 4 . R 5 . C 6 . RExercise 4 (p. 02) 2 . Once an invention is patented, only the owner can make, sell or distribute the product . Therefore, anyone else who wants to profit from this item must get permission from the owner . or Once an invention is patented, only the owner can make, sell or distribute the product; therefore, anyone else who wants to profit from this item must get permission from the owner . 3 . Novels, plays, newspapers, and other original printed materials are protected by copyright law . However, visual images such as drawings, photographs, and cartoons are still illegally copied off the Internet . or . Novels, plays, ewspapers, and other original printed materials are protected by copyright law; however, visual images such as drawings, photographs, and cartoons are still illegally copied off the Internet . 4 . There continues to be illegal videotaping of movies in public movie theaters . Consequently, the U . S . Congress found it necessary to pass the Family Copyright Act of 2005 . or There continues to be illegal videotaping of movies in public movie theaters; consequently, the U . S . Congress found it necessary to pass the Family Copyright Act of 2005 . Part 4: Editing Your Writing Exercise  (p. 05) Answers will vary. 2 .Whereas some people like to go to a movie theater, others prefer to watch movies at home . 3 . Even though baseball is the most popular sport in America, soccer is the leading sport in Europe . 4 . While shopping online is very convenient, many people prefer to see the merchandise before they buy it . 5 . Although air travel is expensive, the time saved makes it worthwhile . Exercise 2 (p. 06) A . 2 . What they decided to do 3 . It is essential authenticity . is ridiculous . that you check the painting’s 4 . We advise that you buy jewelry only from a reputable dealer . 5 . The board demands teachers . 6 . I don’t agree hat the school hire master with what he said . B . 1 . I believe that viewers have a right to use free unauthorized cable service . 2 . Cable companies complain that they are losing money and that obtaining free cable is unlawful . 3 . We feel that these companies have a monopoly . 4 . In conclusion, I think that people should be allowed to use unauthorized cable service unless we have reasonable options . Exercise 3 (p. 07) 2 . The city residents recommend that the mayor lower the fare for public transportation . 3 . Parents believe that the community should provide after-school programs for teenagers . 4 .It is crucial that the government offer free health care for all citizens . 5 . Most employers insist that their workers arrive on time . Exercise 4 (p. 07) Identity theft occurs when someone steals your name, social security, or credit card number and uses it for his/her own purposes . Although most people feel safe from identity theft (1) , thousands of people each year fall victim to this new form of crime . We recommend that you (2) to protect yourself from this hideous crime . Do not disclose personal information (like your social security number) to strangers . Destroy all unused bank and credit card statements .Keep an eye on your credit cards . Although credit cards make life easier (3) , you need to be cautious when using them . In case you become a victim of identity crime, foll ow these steps . We advise that you (4) should file a police report as soon as you realize that something is wrong . It is crucial that you (5) to notify your credit card companies and bank immediately . We also suggest that you (6) could keep records of all your documents in a safe place . Therefore, if you become a victim, you will have all the necessary information to facilitate the filing process . Part 5: Putting It All Together Exercise  (p. 09) . R 2 . C 3 . R 4 . R 5 . C 6 . R Exercise 2 (p. 09) 1 . A lot of companies copy the ingredients found in famous perfumes . Furthermore/in addition/ moreover, other companies steal patterns for dishware, sheets, and towels . or A lot of companies copy the ingredients found in famous perfumes; furthermore/in addition/moreover, other companies steal patterns for dishware, sheets, and towels . 2 . Many college students know that plagiarism is illegal . However/nevertheless, websites that sell essays continue to grow . or Many college s tudents know that plagiarism is illegal; however/nevertheless, websites that sell essays ontinue to grow . 3 . Writing a research paper takes time and patience . Furthermore/in addition/moreover, it takes determination . or Writing a research paper takes time and patience; furthermore/in addition/ moreover, it takes determination . 4 . Media-related property theft has resulted in legal retaliation . However/nevertheless, the number of individuals illegally obtaining media online has increased . or Media-related property theft has resulted in legal retaliation; however/ Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key  nevertheless, the number of individuals illegally obtaining media online has increased . . Many consumers try to keep up with modern technology . However/ nevertheless, this is almost impossible because what is popular today becomes obsolete tomorrow . or Many consumers try to keep up with modern technology; however/ nevertheless, this is almost impossible because what is po pular today becomes obsolete tomorrow . Exercise 3 (p. 0) Answers will vary. 1 . Although people in the United States greet each other buy shaking hands, people in other countries greet each other by bowing . 2 . While opponents say that television has a lot of violence, many people believe it can be an educational tool . 3 .Whereas many people go on vacation in the summer, I prefer to vacation in the winter when it’s less crowded . 4 . Although smoking has proven to be a dangerous habit, I still see many people smoking . 5 . Even though cell phone users believe they have the right to talk whenever they want, many people believe that cell phones should be banned from restaurants . Exercise 4 (p. ) 1 . It is mandatory that cyclists in the United States wear helmets . 2 . The government believes that people should be punished for stealing intellectual property . 3 . It is essential that a driver check the car’s oil and tires before taking a long trip . 4 .The taxpay ers propose that the mayor build a new highway . 5 . Colleges recommend that students have their own computers . Exercise 5 (p. ) To complete a research project on the Internet, it is important that you (1) must find a good search engine . (2) Although there There are many available (3) , some are better than others . Once you have chosen your search engine, it is essential that you (4) should narrow your search to a specific topic . Type in the keywords for your search . We recommend that you (5) will check your spelling carefully . If you misspell too many words, you will not get the right results . As soon as you have our list of websites, we suggest that you quickly (6) to scan the list . (7) While/whereas some Some people choose websites randomly, others find that the first five 2 Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key to ten are usually the best . Be prepared to look at a lot of websites before you find what you need . Open the sites and skim them to find out if the info rmation will work for your project . (8) Even though/although it It is tempting to copy the material that you have found, it is mandatory that you (9) to use your own words when you write your paper . You should include the website address in your final report . Unit 5Classification Essays Part 1: Stimulating Ideas Exercise 3 (p. 8) 1 . T 2 . T 3 . F 4 . T 5 . F Exercise (p. 8) Answers will vary. 1 . College students looking for a job and people who want to advance in their professions need to learn new skills . 2 . Some computer skills needed are Microsoft Word, Excel, Access, and e-mail systems . 3 . Skills 2006 was a study based on a survey conducted to find out whether new job applicants had the necessary skills . 4 . Companies now want employees to be technically trained for the jobs . 5 . There will not be enough graduates to fill these positions . Part 2: Brainstorming and OutliningExercise 3 (p. 2) Graphic design programs for web pages and animation are discussed . Exe rcise 4 (p. 23) Answers will vary. A . 1 . Flash MX has transitional pages, which are links that guide you from one slide (or portion of the slide) to another . You can also have animated introductions and create diverse effects with the buttons at the bottom of the pages . 2 . Photoshop allows you to repair old photos by adjusting the light and shadow . 3 . Swish provides a greater variety of font designs . 4 . Two-dimensional animations are flat while 3-dimentional animations have depth . 5 . Answers will vary. B . 1 .Hook: â€Å"Graphic design has become an essential tool in desktop publishing . † 2 . Thesis statement: â€Å"Graphic design programs are classified according to their function . † Graphic design programs are categorized according to the functions they perform . 3 . They are being grouped according to function . 4 . The category for body paragraph 1 is programs used to develop a web page . 5 . The category for body paragraph 2 is programs used to desig n flyers, posters, and cards . 6 . The category for body paragraph 3 is animation programs used to produce a 2- or 3-dimensional style . 7 . b 5 . The writer uses statistics . Exercise 3 (p. 29) Answers will vary. 1 . Group 1: landscaper, farmer, park ranger Principle of classification: people who work in nature 2 . Group 2: linguist, interpreter, speech therapist Principle of classification: people who work with language 3 . Group 3: civil engineer, architect, surveyor Principle of classification: people involved in building and construction Exercise 4 (p. 3) Part 3: Developing Your Ideas Exercise  (p. 26) Computer scientists, computer engineers, computer support specialists, and system analysts 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . the greatest the same the fewest almost the same the smallest Exercise 2 (p. 27) Answers will vary.A . 1 . They have to be able to do research and be problem solvers . 2 . They rank the second highest . 3 . The highest paid people with associate degrees will be resp iratory therapists, cardiovascular technologists, and nuclear medicine technologists . 4 . These professionals should be able to communicate written information and medical instructions to their clients . 5 . Computer science and health and human services as well as their related skills are the forces that will drive the economy . 6 . Answers will vary. B . 1 . Answers will vary. Example: Many young people are wondering where the jobs of the future may e . 2 . Thesis statement: â€Å"However, if you are one of the many students who are still confused about which career to pursue, here are the jobs that will have the most growth in the number of people employed over the next decade . † Answers will vary. If you are not sure about your career path, you may want to consider one of these jobs that will be employing the most people within the next ten years . 3 . The information is presented in order of the highest, the second highest, the third highest percentage of growth . 4 . Body paragraph 1: The highest percentage of growth; body paragraph 2: The second-highest ercentage of growth; body paragraph 3: The third-highest growth rate . Part 4: Revising Your Writing Exercise  (p. 34) 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . V, eating S, being V, taking S, learning S, studying Exercise 2 (p. 34) Answers will vary. 2 . I always enjoy swimming in the ocean . 3 . Volunteering in the community can be a wonderful experience . 4 . Many people dislike watching scary movies . 5 . Repairing computers is a useful skill to learn . 6 . If you want to feel better, you should avoid eating fatty foods . Exercise 3 (p. 34) 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . improving memorizing researching discovering taking Exercise 4 (p. 34) Answers will vary. . I am interested in taking a computer graphics course this semester . 3 . I am nervous about speaking in front of a large audience . 4 . I am responsible for taking care of my sister . 5 . I am concerned about passing my driver’s test . Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key 3 6 . I am involved in planting new trees in my community . Exercise 5 (p. 36) 1 . The principal expected the teachers to arrive on time . 2 . The company is planning to hire new employees . 3 . Barbara expects to graduate next year . 4 . All hospitals require doctors to pass their medical exams . 5 . We decided to learn a foreign language . 6 .Employment agencies advise job applicants to dress appropriately for their job interviews . Exercise 6 (p. 36) Answers will vary. 1 . The professor agreed to give the final exam early . 2 . The policeman asked us to park on the other side of the street . 3 . My doctor advised me to eat more fruit and vegetables . 4 . The mayor needs to give a speech next week . 5 . My best friend wants to travel the world before she’s 40 . 6 . Many children learn to write at a very early age . Exercise 7 (p. 37) Answers will vary. 2 . My parents let me go to Europe last summer to study . 3 . The lifeguard had all the swimmers leave the pool . . The judge made the jury stay for the weekend . 5 . The bus driver let all the passengers ride for free . 6 . The airlines made all the travelers turn off their electronic devices . Exercise 8 (p. 37) (1) Finding Find the right career may seem like an overwhelming task for many . If you are looking for job opportunities, you need (2) to take enough time to explore all the options . Begin by (3) assessing assess your skills . Decide what you are good at doing and what you enjoy . Are you interested in designing or creating things with your hands? Perhaps you are more accustomed to (4) sitting sit at a computer . Do you like orking indoors or do you enjoy (5) being be outside in nature? Some people prefer (6) to work on a team, while others dislike working with others . This may be the most important decisions you will ever make, so explore your talents and abilities carefully, and do not let anyone (7) to influence you . 4 Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key Part 5: Putting It All Together Exercise  (p. 39) 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . preparing forming receiving Arriving writing Practicing Exercise 2 (p. 39) 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . to at in for with about Exercise 3 (p. 40) 1 . b 2 . a 3 . c 4 . a 5 . c 6 . c Exercise 4 (p. 40)