Friday, October 11, 2019

Answer Key for Effective Writing 3

Answer Key Booklet 2 Contents Answer Key Unit 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Unit 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Unit 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Unit 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Unit 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Unit 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Great Clarendon Street, Oxford o x2 6dp UK The Publisher grants permission for the photocopying of those pages marked â€Å"photocopiable† according to the following conditions. Individual purchasers may make copies for their own use or for use by classes they teach.School purchasers may make copies for use by their staff and students. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer. 1 198 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016 USA Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices inAny websites referred to in this publication are in the public domain and their addresses are provided by Oxford University Press for information only. Oxford University Press disclaims any responsibility for the content. oxford and o xford english are registered trademarks of Oxford University Press Executive Publisher: Janet Aitchison Senior Acquisitions Editor: Pietro Alongi Associate Editor: Scott Allan Wallick Art Director: Maj-Britt Hagsted Production Manager: Shanta Persaud Production Controller: Eve Wong  © Oxford University Press 2007 isbn: 978- 0-19-430884-7 Database right Oxford University Press (maker)Printed in Hong Kong All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of Oxford University Press, with the sole exception of photocopying carried out under the conditions that follow. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Answer Key Unit  The Five-Paragraph Essay 4 . No, the conclusion in the five-paragraph essay is not ifferent from that of the short essay on page 3 . Part 1: Stimulating Ideas Part 2: Developing the Five-Paragraph Essay Exercise 2 (pp. 3â€⠀œ4) Exercise  (p. 9) A . 1 . a 2 . b 3 . c B . Answers will vary. 1 . To achieve this goal, I focused on three points: the content of an essay, correct grammar, and advanced level vocabulary . It is the thesis of the essay because it states what the entire essay is about . 2 . As soon as I started to write for college, I realized that college writing was different from the writing I was used to doing . It is the topic sentence because it states what the body paragraph is about . . The details in the body paragraph give explanations and examples to support the topic sentence . 4 . It sums up the ideas of the essay, and it brings it to a close . Exercise 3 (pp. 5–7) A . Answers will vary. B . 1 . Thesis statement: â€Å"To achieve this goal, I focused on three points: the content of an essay, correct grammar, and advanced level vocabulary . † No, the thesis statement is not different from the thesis statement of the short essay on page 3 . 2 . Each topic sentence suppo rts the thesis statement . First body paragraph topic sentence: â€Å"As soon as I started to write for college, I realized that college riting was different from the writing I was used to doing . † Second body paragraph topic sentence: â€Å"I realized I had to improve my understanding of grammar in order to write for college . † Third body paragraph topic sentence: â€Å"I soon realized that academic writing required a much more sophisticated vocabulary . † 3 . The body paragraphs of the five-paragraph essay expand on the information provided in the single body paragraph of the short essay by giving examples and anecdotes . The body paragraphs of the five-paragraph essay are more analytical in nature . 1 . Hook: â€Å"It was a sunny day in the summer of 1998 hen my family moved out of the city to the suburbs . † 2 . I did not like leaving because I would lose my friends and the places where I had had so much fun . It was very sad for me to see my friend s standing in front of the old house as we said our last goodbyes . 3 . Thesis statement: â€Å"Little did I know that this move would turn out to be one of the best moments of my life . † 4 . Topic: â€Å"Little did I know that this move . . . † 5 . Controlling idea: â€Å" . . . would turn out to be one of the best moments of my life . † Exercise 2 (p. 0) Body Paragraph 1 Answers will vary. 1 . As soon as I started to write for college, I realized hat college writing was different from the writing I was used to doing . 2 . The writer gives supporting details . In high school, most of the writer’s writing dealt with personal experiences with family, childhood, and friends . In contrast, college writing is focused on a variety of unfamiliar issues, such as reacting to a piece of literature or writing about the community . The most important thing for the writer was to understand the assigned topic before attempting a first draft . The writer wanted to in clude examples, statistics, and direct quotations whenever possible for support . These etails support the topic sentence because they elaborate on the topic sentence . 3 . b Body Paragraph 2 Answers will vary. 1 . I realized that I had to improve my understanding of grammar in order to write for college . 2 . The writer gives supporting details . Before the writer came to college, grammar was not Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key  a strong point . The writer often created run-on sentences or sentence fragments . The writer was more concerned with what to say than how it was said . The professors would not accept this kind of writing and made the writer revise many times .Consequently, the writer made grammar the second priority . The writer reviewed the basic grammatical structures such as subjects and verbs and checked all work for verb tense consistency and punctuation . As a result, the writer’s work became more complex because the writer included transitional wor ds, gerunds, and embedded clauses . These details support the topic sentence because they elaborate on the topic sentence . 3 . a Body Paragraph 3 Answers will vary. 1 . I soon realized that academic writing required a much more sophisticated vocabulary . 2 . The writer gives supporting details . The writer as accustomed to writing letters and informal essays, so the writer usually wrote the way the writer speaks with family and friends . It was common for the writer to include slang and abbreviated terms, which were appropriate in social contexts but were unacceptable in formal essays . The writer’s third goal became improving vocabulary . The writer bought a dictionary and thesaurus, became more aware of how often the same words and phrases were repeated throughout the essay, and looked for synonyms to replace words that the writer thought were too simple for a college essay . The writer also focused ore on the rules of spelling and corrected any errors . These details supp ort the topic sentence because they elaborate on the topic sentence . 3 . a Exercise 3 (p. ) 1 . 3 2 . The first sentence restates the thesis: â€Å"Academic writing requires critical thinking skills, an understanding of the topic, high level vocabulary, and correct grammar . † 3 . d Part 3: Unity and Coherence Exercise  (p. 2) Having my friends and family together at my wedding was an amazing experience . I had not seen some of my uncles, cousins, and aunts for many years . My cousin Tom lives in London, where he works as 2Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key an engineer . Both my mother and father were born in different countries, so my relatives are scattered all over the world . I really like traveling and have been to Europe and Asia . Although we try to get together for important occasions, this was the first time everyone could attend . Most importantly, my good friends had never met my relatives . Developing good friendships takes a lot of work . Watching them all dancing, laughing, and having a wonderful time will stay in my memory forever . The band we hired played music that the guests loved and we danced for hours .My original guest list had over 200 people, but I had to cut it down to 150 . It was difficult finding a group that could play all the diverse styles that I wanted at the wedding . Most bands specialize in one or two different kinds of music . However, these musicians really knew all types of music—from 1940s jazz and swing to salsa, merengue, and even hip-hop . My brother was once in a rock and roll band . In short, there was music to suit everyone’s tastes . I loved the singer’s dress . It was incredible . Even my grandparents danced all night . Exercise 2 (p. 4) 1 . a, c, d 2 . a, b, d, e Exercise 3 (p. 5) 2 . 3 . a Exercise 4 (p. 6) Answers will vary. 2 . Learning a foreign language takes a lot of patience and effort . Moreover, it helps to have a good ear and be able to spend some time in the h ost country . 3 . The college student was told to revise her essay a third time . Nevertheless, she has still made great progress with her writing skills . 4 . John Steinbeck, a famous American author, wrote many books concerning the human condition . For example, his novel The Grapes of Wrath dealt with the problems of the Great Depression . 5 . Academic writing requires standard grammar, sophisticated vocabulary, and proper rganization . In contrast, e-mail messages use abbreviations, symbols, and slang . 6 . Nowadays research is often done on the Internet . Previously, important information was stored on special film called microfiche. Exercise 5 (p. 7) Answers will vary. A . If you want to make rice, first boil some water . Next, add rice . Then cook for about 20 minutes . B . If you want to learn Spanish, the most important thing is to take a Spanish class . The second priority is to practice speaking Spanish with friends . Then visit a Spanish-speaking country . Exercise 6 (p . 8) 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . She this they we s They us Exercise 7 (p. 9) 2 . As a teenager, I reported on school events, edited articles for the high school newspaper, and published some of my stories . 3 . Some of the rewards of being an author are learning about historical events, researching the lives of famous people, and discovering facts about yourself . 4 . Attending workshops on writing has taught me how to receive criticism, become a more focused writer, and take more risks . Part 4: Editing Your Writing Exercise  (p. 20) 2 . I felt very confident because I had spent a long time practicing . 3 . Since it was my graduation, I bought a beautiful ew outfit . 4 . Although the ceremony was very long, nobody was bored . 5 . We went out for a fancy meal after the ceremony ended . 6 . My family took a lot of photographs which I still enjoy looking at . Exercise 2 (p. 2) 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . RO RO C RO C Exercise 3 (p. 22) 2 . The nineteenth-century British novelist Charlott e Bronte wrote Jane Eyre, and her younger sister Emily was the author of the classic Wuthering Heights . 3 . Upton Sinclair was concerned about social and political problems of his times, so he wrote The Jungle, exposing the unsanitary conditions of the meatpacking industry . 4 .Jane Austen’s original version of Pride and Prejudice was written when she was only twenty years old, yet it was not published for almost two decades . 5 . The anthropologist Margaret Mead went to Samoa to collect data for her book, for she was interested in researching the role of adolescent girls in a non-Western culture . 6 . Writers often use biographical information, or they adapt the background of other people for their story . Exercise 4 (p. 23) 2 . Margaret Mitchell was able to write the epic novel Gone with the Wind because she understood the decline of the southern plantation owners . 3 .Although Somerset Maugham was a doctor, he wrote many important novels, short stories, and plays . 4 . So me of the Harry Potter books have already been made into movies since they are so popular . 5 . When Wallace Stevens received the Pulitzer Prize for his collected poems, he was vice president of an insurance company . Exercise 5 (p. 24) Answers will vary. 2 . When I visited her, she showed me photos of her vacation . 3 . Because she had a demanding job, she never had time to visit with friends . 4 . Since I was her favorite, I always got a special gift . 5 . After she got married, she started working owntown . Exercise 6 (p. 25) While I was visiting China, I (1) experienced experience a special kind of warmth from the people I (2) came come in contact with . I was always aware of their special quality of friendliness . I (3) had have the unique experience of being in Beijing on the night the Chinese (4) won win their bid to host the 2008 summer Olympics . On that night, I (5) was am one of a million and a half people who poured into the streets to express their joy and gratitude . I walked with them and (6) shook shake hands with as many people as I could while I sang out the words: â€Å"gong xi ni ba†Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key 3 (congratulations) . My words (7) were are always met with big smiles and enthusiastic handshakes . Those parents with kids on their shoulders, teenagers, and many others (8) felt feel as if the rest of the world was welcoming them into the global community . Now I wish them the best, and I am hoping to return one day . If you take a trip to China, you will experience the same kind of hospitality . Part 5: Putting It All Together Exercise 4 (p. 28) Exercise  (p. 26) 1 . Hook: â€Å"Difficult life-changing experiences become the memories that stay forever in our minds . † 2 .We have to learn to balance the positive and negative effects that these situations have on us . The day after I finished my first year at college, I had one of these life-changing experiences . 3 . Thesis statement: â€Å"Going on a j ob interview at an international bank taught me an important lesson . † 4 . Topic: Going on a job interview at an international bank . 5 . Controlling idea: The writer learned an important lesson . Exercise 2 (p. 26) a . 4 b . 1 c . 7 d . 3 e . 5 f . 2 g . 6 Exercise 3 (p. 27) A . I was in a rush to get there, (1) so I decided to take a taxi . The traffic was so horrible that the driver was in a bad mood . 2) When he He closed the door, my new skirt got caught . I tried desperately to pull it out, but it ripped . I thought about asking the driver to stop, (3) but I was too embarrassed to say anything . Although I was very upset (4) , . I tried to be calm . The ride was much longer than I expected, (5) and the air conditioning was not working . I did not want anything negative to block my mind (6) . I was eager to have this job . I wanted to have a good interview and make a strong impression (7) , since . Since I learned in school that first impressions are the most valuable . B . Finally when I arrived at the bank, I (1) looked ook at my skirt . The torn hem was hanging and was covered with dirt . Once inside, I (2) went go into the ladies room . I tried to wash my skirt and hold it together with a safety pin . A few minutes later, I was in the waiting room when the secretary (3) called call me . I was embarrassed and afraid that I wouldn’t get the job because of my sloppy appearance . The most interesting part was that the manager asked me what (4) happened 4 happen . When I (5) told tell her the story, she started to laugh . She (6) couldn’t can’t stop . She wanted to ask me something about myself, but she (7) kept keeps on aughing . Now I was sure I would not get the job . She said, â€Å"I will never forget this . I never thought that I (8) would will have such a good time today . You know, when you have to interview a lot of people in one day, it can become very boring . † Despite this ordeal, she assured me that I had th e right qualifications, and in the end she offered me the position . Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key 1 . We never know when a negative experience can end up being a positive influence on our life and can stay in our minds forever . 2 . d Exercise 5 (p. 28) 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . them it he it mine me us This Exercise 6 (p. 29) 1 . Sometimes when essays are written too quickly the sentences do not flow naturally . Therefore, you should always read your essay out loud to make sure it does . 2 . The sonnets of Shakespeare always rhyme . In contrast, modern poetry usually uses free verse that does not rhyme . 3 . Writing a good play requires a strong story line . Moreover, you need realistic dialogue and believable characters . 4 . William Shakespeare wrote comedies as well as tragedies . For example, The Taming of the Shrew and A Midsummer Night’s Dream both have happy endings . 5 .Computers have grammar and spell check . Nevertheless, a good writer should not depend on these tools . Exercise 7 (p. 30) 1 . A few years ago, I went to China to research a book, meet some old friends, and visit the famous temples . 2 . One day we toured the Ming Dynasty gardens, walked through the narrow streets, and visited the Great Wall . 3 . I ate with chopsticks, sampled spicy foods, and drank exotic teas . 4 . The Chinese are famous for creating silk screens, painting lacquer boxes, and inventing calligraphy . 5 . I enrolled in a Chinese culture class where I learned how to write a few characters, speak a ew words, and recognize the different tones of the language . Unit 2 Process Analysis Essays Part 1: Stimulating Ideas Exercise 3 (p. 34) will return home to eat and drink . The background information tells about celebration of the Day of the Dead . It tells when the celebration occurs and tells what the holiday is for . 3 . Thesis: â€Å"In my native town, Puebla, preparation begins three weeks before the holiday . † Answers will vary. 4 . Body paragraph 3 explains the process of families decorating and watching over the graves of dead relatives . 5 . a Part 3: Developing Your Ideas 5 . T Exercise  (p. 4) Answers will vary. . He had supernatural powers that helped him see the dead . 2 . Sonja’s offerings to the priests saved his mother . 3 . Families clean their homes, decorate the Buddhist altars, and light lanterns . 4 . Both children and adults participate in Bon Odori . 5 . Day of the Dead and Halloween Exercise 2 (p. 42) 1 . F 2 . T 3 . F 4 . T Exercise 4 (p. 34) Part 2: Brainstorming and Outlining Exercise 2 (p. 35) Answers will vary. 1 . Costumes: masks, makeup, traditional dress 2 . Foods: marshmallows, hamburgers, apple pie 3 . Music/Dance: national anthem, folk, circles 4 . Decorations: balloons, streamers, confettiExercise 3 (p. 36) Answers will vary. Exercise 4 (p. 38) A . 1 . The Day of the Dead is celebrated to remember the dead . 2 . People buy candles, incense, copal, fruit, flowers, and candies . 3 . The merchants build stalls to protect themselves and their products from the sunlight . 4 . Families go to the cemetery to decorate and to watch over the graves of dead relatives . 5 . Answers will vary. B . 1 . Hook: â€Å"Mexican culture is full of colorful traditions . † 2 . One of them is the celebration of the Day of the Dead . This special holiday for remembering the dead takes place on November 2 of every year . On hat day, families believe that their dead relatives The writer prepares a turkey for Thanksgiving dinner . A . 1 . The writer searched the Internet for recipes and got advice from friends . 2 . All the ingredients have to be fresh, especially the herbs . 3 . While the cornbread is baking, the other stuffing ingredients are being prepared . 4 . The size of the turkey determines the cooking time . 5 . Answers will vary . B . 1 . Hook: â€Å"The cashier gave me a free 12 pound turkey because my food receipt was over fifty dollars . † 2 . Thesis stat ement: â€Å"I did not know how to cook a turkey, but since I had gotten one, I decided it as a good opportunity to learn how . † Answers will vary. I wanted to learn how to cook a turkey, since I had gotten one at the supermarket . 3 . before, eventually, while, now, first, second, after, next, finally, then 4 . defrost, prepare, roast, take out, put in, take off, place, marinate, wash, poke, add, mix, brush, make, follow, bake, cut, saute, chop, cool off, mash up, fill, sew, cook 5 . Body paragraph 3 explains the steps in defrosting and preparing a turkey before it is roasted . 6 . The family said that the turkey was amazing and that the writer should prepare Thanksgiving dinner next year .Exercise 3 (p. 44) first, second, third, next, after this, then, finally Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key 5 Exercise 4 (p. 44) A . a . 6 c . 1 e . 2 b . 5 d . 3 f . 4 B . Before you begin, decide on a topic that you want to research . Second, review what has been written on the to pic . Third, organize the information in order of importance . Next, develop a term paper outline . After this, write the first draft of the paper . Finally, edit and revise your work . Exercise 5 (p. 45) 2 . Before you buy a computer disk, make sure it is compatible with your computer . Make sure the computer disk is compatible with our computer before you buy it . 3 . Before you use the new computer disk, format it . Format the new computer disk before you use it . 4 . After you save your essay on a disk, print it out . Print out your essay after you save it on a disk . 5 . As soon as you finish reading your email, log out . Log out as soon as you finish reading your email . 6 . After you close all programs, shut down the computer . Shut down the computer after you close all programs . Part 4: Editing Your Writing Exercise  (p. 49) 2 . Obon is celebrated by the Japanese in the summer . 3 . The fragrant fruit is protected from the sun by the talls . 4 . The grave must be guarded b y the relatives of the dead . 5 . The children were fascinated by the fireworks . 6 . Traditional food is sold to the families by the merchants . Exercise 2 (p. 50) 2 . Litter and trash should be picked up . 3 . Children must not be allowed to play with fireworks . 4 . Hot dogs and hamburgers must be cooked thoroughly . 5 . Music should not be played too loudly . 6 . Flags may be displayed in front of the houses . Exercise 3 (p. 50) 1 . Sushi is eaten in Japan . 2 . Many festivals are organized by the city government . 3 . Special breads and cakes are baked for the elebration . 4 . The turkey must be defrosted in the refrigerator . 6 Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key 5 . Green is worn by many people in the United States on Saint Patrick’s Day . 6 . A lot of flowers and chocolates are sold on Valentine’s Day . Exercise 4 (p. 5) 1 . X 2 . The gifts offered to the spirits are blessed by the families . 3 . X 4 . X 5 . The Buddhist altars are decorated by families . 6 . X Exercise 5 (p. 52) Every year, the falling autumn leaves signal the approach of Halloween . It is one of the most popular holidays in the United States, and it (1) is enjoyed by both children and adults .Many parties are held on this occasion when special costumes, masks, and wigs (2) are worn . Some of the most popular costumes that are (3) chosen chose are from children’s fairy tales as well as witches, ghosts, and famous movie stars . Prizes are often given for the most unusual and creative disguises . Faces are (4) painted paint with odd designs and colorful makeup . The fronts of many houses (5) are decorated with gravestones, monsters, and jack-o-lanterns . These lanterns are (6) made making from pumpkins, which are carved out to create scary faces . On the night of Halloween, children go trick-or-treating, which means oing from house to house to collect candy . For kids and adults alike, Halloween is great fun . But remember, young children should (7) to be acco mpanied by an adult at all times . Part 5: Putting It All Together Exercise  (p. 53) A . a . 2 c . 3 e . 1 b . 5 d . 6 f . 4 B . Answers will vary. First, check with your counselor for available scholarships . Second, select three or four scholarships that are appropriate for you . Third, go to the Internet and review the requirements . Next, request an application form . After this, complete the application . Finally, submit the application and wait for a response . Exercise 2 (p. 3) 1 . Before you enter a Japanese tea house, take off your shoes . or Take off your shoes before you enter a Japanese tea house . 2 . After you sit in the proper position, begin the ceremony . or Begin the ceremony after you sit in the proper position . 3 . As soon as you pour hot water into the tea bowl, stir the mixture . or Stir the mixture as soon as you pour hot water into the tea bowl . 4 . Before you taste the tea, admire the design of the bowl . or Admire the design of the bowl before you taste the tea . 5 . After you drink the tea, pass the bowl to the next person . or Pass the bowl to the next person after ou drink the tea . Exercise 3 (p. 54) 1 . Baseball players are idolized by the fans . 2 . Tickets can be bought on the Internet by fans . 3 . The games are often sponsored by large corporations . 4 . A special vest must be worn by the umpire . 5 . Baseball is watched by millions of viewers on TV . Exercise 4 (p. 54) 1 . Changes to the schedule must be approved by the principal . 2 . The electric drill must be plugged in . 3 . Banks and other businesses are closed on national holidays . 4 . Potatoes and other vegetables are grown in Idaho . 5 . A weekend edition is published by The New York Times . Exercise 5 (p. 55)In college, students have many responsibilities, and one of them is to understand the rules of the university . International students may be confused by some of these rules . For instance, on most American college campuses, alcohol consumption is (1) prohib ited prohibit because of the many alcohol-related deaths among young people . Educators believe that students should be (2) made make aware of the dangers of excessive drinking . Another issue is smoking in public spaces, which (3) is permitted in some countries around the world . In the majority of American schools, smoking is not (4) allowed allowing in the cafeterias, dormitories, and tudent unions . However, in most classrooms, food and drinks may (5) to be consumed . Before students enter a classroom or lecture hall, they are (6) expected expect to turn their cell phones off . Plagiarism and cheating on exams (7) is be not tolerated; serious consequences may result . Unit 3 Cause and Effect Essays Part 1: Stimulating Ideas Exercise 3 (p. 62) 1 . F 2 . F 3 . T 4 . T 5 . T Exercise 4 (p. 62) Answers will vary. 1 . While his peers spent money on fraternities and parties, Mighty invested in the stock market . He searched for answers on his own . 2 . He made a documentary while trav eling around he country asking people from many different backgrounds what they thought happiness was . 3 . You don’t need material wealth to enjoy your life; you just have to live it to the fullest . 4 . Answers will vary. 5 . Answers will vary. Part 2: Brainstorming and Outlining Exercise 2 (p. 64) Answers will vary. A . 1 . Happiness: love, friendship, success, enjoy 2 . Actions: complete, advance, finish, start 3 . Results: turn into, make possible, end result, culminate B . Answers will vary. 2 . Accomplishing your goals leads to peace of mind . 3 . Succeeding in a difficult situation brings about contentment . 4 .Completing a college degree makes it possible to enjoy a good career . 5 . Finishing what you started leads to selfsatisfaction . Exercise 3 (p. 65) A positive outlook helps you find happiness in relationships, keeps you healthy, and makes you more able to confront difficult situations . Exercise 4 (p. 66) Answers will vary. 1 . Hook: â€Å"Happiness is a stat e of being that everyone wants to achieve . † 2 . A positive outlook can help you be happy and change the outcome of your life . 3 . Thesis statement: â€Å"It can enrich your relationships, improve your health, and guide you through some of life’s greatest challenges . A positive outlook on life can make your relationships stronger, make you Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key 7 healthier, and give you the strength to face life’s most difficult moments . 4 . Body paragraph 1 topic: A positive outlook helps you find happiness in professional, social, and personal relationships . Body pargraph 2 topic: Having a positive outlook also makes a person healthy . Body paragraph 3 topic: Finally, people with positive outlooks are stronger and capable of confronting difficult situations . 5 . Laughter releases a chemical substance called serotonin into your blood stream; stress causes igh blood pressure, heart disease, and cancer 6 . The conclusion restates the intr oduction in different words . Part 3: Developing Your Ideas Exercise  (p. 69) According to the writer, family support, motivation, and the ability to focus lead to success in college . Exercise 2 (p. 70) Answers will vary. 1 . Students may experience self-doubt, face financial hardships, and be overwhelmed by the work load . 2 . They might be too tired to study after returning home late from their jobs, or they might decide to go to a party instead of studying . 3 . Students have many obligations to fill and may rrive home late at night, so they may find it difficult to finish their homework and make their studies a priority . 4 . You could waste valuable time and money if you aren’t focused . 5 . Answers will vary. Exercise 3 (p. 7) 2 . c 3 . a 4 . c 5 . a Exercise 4 (p. 73) 2 . Since people are receiving better medical treatment, they are living longer . or People are living longer since they are receiving better medical treatment . 3 . Because orchestras are trying to at tract a younger audience, reduced rates at concert halls are available for many high school students . or Reduced rates at concert halls are available for any high school students because orchestras are trying to attract a younger audience . 4 . Since research has shown that yoga reduces stress, more and more individuals are practicing it . or More and more individuals are practicing yoga since research has shown that it reduces stress . 8 Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key Exercise 5 (p. 73) 2 . As a result of the high pollen count, my allergies are very bad this season . 3 . Because of my excellent work, I received the highest grade in the class . 4 . Due to the destructive fire, the building had to be demolished . Exercise 6 (p. 74) 2 .The fire caused major damage to the school auditorium; consequently, we will have the performance in the town hall . or The fire caused major damage to the school auditorium . Consequently, we will have the performance in the town hall . 3. T he Great Depression was devastating; as a result, many farmers moved to California . or The Great Depression was devastating . As a result, many farmers moved to California . 4 . Airlines have cut back services; as a result, flights no longer provide meals . or Airlines have cut back services . As a result, flights no longer provide meals . 5 . The reviews were great; therefore, the theater dded more performances . or The reviews were great . Therefore, the theater added more performances . Part 4: Editing Your Writing Exercise  (p. 77) 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . If you study hard, you will pass the test . If you get a roommate, you will share the rent . If you go to bed early, you will wake up refreshed . If you read more, you will increase your vocabulary . Exercise 2 (p. 78) 2 . If I owned a car, I wouldn’t travel by bus . 3 . If people didn’t watch a lot of TV, they would read books . 4 . If I knew how to cook, I could make dinner for the whole family . 5 . If we have a lot of rain in the spring, I won’t go amping . Exercise 3 (p. 78) Answers will vary. 2 . I would buy a beach house if I had more money . 3 . If people receive better health care, they will live longer . 4 . I would learn a foreign language if I could go back to school . 5 . If home owners used solar energy, they would save money on their heating bills . Exercise 4 (p. 79) If you (1) like liked music, think about taking a music appreciation course . If you (2) would have any talent in that direction, you may want to join a choir . I joined a choir two years ago and I enjoy it very much . I know that if I didn’t have my rehearsals, I (3) would ill be very unhappy . I look forward to working with a conductor, learning challenging pieces, and singing with a group . If I (4) miss missed a rehearsal, I feel a little depressed . Even if we work on a difficult piece, I (5) would find the challenge exhilarating . If music is not the hobby for you, you should (6) find found one that can bring you happiness . If you do, you (7) will would not be sorry . Part 5: Putting It All Together Exercise  (p. 80) 1 . b 2 . a 3 . b 4 . c 5 . a 6 . c Exercise 2 (p. 8) 1 . The construction industry is thriving since there is a high demand for new housing . or Since there is high demand for new housing, the construction industry is thriving . 2 . Because of fierce competition for jobs, many young adults want to go to college . or Many young adults want to go to college because of fierce competition for jobs . 3 . Because people are living longer, second careers are more common . or Second careers are more common because people are living longer . 4 . Newspapers and magazines are losing subscribers since readers obtain more up-to-date information from the Internet . or Since readers obtain more up-to-date information from the Internet, newspapers and magazines are losing subscribers . 5 .Due to a great need for nurses, many students are entering the profession . or Many stud ents are entering the profession due to a great need for nurses . 6 . As a result of the building of the Suez Canal, ships are able to travel faster from the west to the east . or Ships are able to travel faster from the west to the east as a result of the building of the Suez Canal . Exercise 3 (p. 8) 1 . Microwaves are time-saving; therefore, people are cooking less . or Microwaves are time-saving . Therefore, people are cooking less . 2 . Crime rates are high; consequently, more police patrol the streets . or Crime rates are high .Consequently, more police patrol the streets . 3 . Globalization is increasing; as a result, English has become a more popular language . or Globalization is increasing . As a result, English has become a more popular language . 4 . Shopping malls are huge; consequently, consumers have more choices . or Shopping malls are huge . Consequently, consumers have more choices . 5 . Cell phones are convenient and economical; as a result, many people have canc elled their home service . or Cell phones are convenient and economical . As a result, many people have cancelled their home service . 6 . The exam was challenging; therefore, many tudents failed . or The exam was challenging . Therefore, many students failed . Exercise 4 (p. 82) 1 . If you work hard, you will succeed in your career . 2 . If you work at a job you like, you will accomplish more in less time . 3 . If you travel around the world, you will learn about new cultures . 4 . If you have a DVD drive, you will be able to watch movies on your computer . 5 . If you plant perennials, you will have flowers again next year . 6 . If you purchase tickets online, you will save money . Exercise 5 (p. 83) Answers will vary. 1 . If you did not play an instrument, you could not join an orchestra . 2 .If you had a long semester, you would have less vacation time . 3 . If we had a microwave, we wouldn’t cook everything on the stove . 4 . If I owned a laptop, I could work efficiently . 5 . If I had any credit cards, I would not pay with cash . Exercise 6 (p. 83) Today, people work long hours and have too many responsiblities; as a result, they have very little leisure time . If people spent more time with family and friends, they (1) would will be happier . Often parents do not have enough time to spend with their children . Therefore, young children do not receive the parental attention they need . If parents (2) had have more home ime, they could play games with their children, and participate in more school activities . If parents (3) spent Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key 9 spend more time with their children, children would do better in school . Furthermore, if workers had more leisure time, they (4) could can go on more family vacations . Teenagers (5) would have had more time to communicate with their parents if they did not have so many responsibilities . If leisure time (6) increased increase, the family unit would be stronger and society as a w hole would benefit . Unit 4 Argumentative Essays Part 1: Stimulating IdeasExercise 3 (p. 90) 1 . F 2 . T 3 . F 4 . T 5 . F 6 . F Part 3: Developing Your Ideas Exercise 4 (p. 90) Answers will vary. 1 . He is the first person to be charged with the crime of piracy, and other arrests may follow . 2 . Its function is to protect intellectual property between nations . 3 . They are losing large profits and are afraid they won’t survive . 4 . Answers will vary. 5 . Answers will vary. Part 2: Brainstorming and Outlining Exercise 2 (p. 92) A . law property legal break the rules commit a crime computers own a copyright download possession share files program B . Answers will vary. Exercise 3 (p. 93)Academic policy rules are broken by cheating and plagiarism . Exercise 4 (p. 95) Answers will vary. A . 1 . Some students plagiarize because it saves time . 2 . The writer feels that copying someone else’s work and submitting it as your own is not only immoral but also academically un acceptable . We know this because the writer says, â€Å"However, plagiarism is wrong because it is irresponsible as well as against academic policy . † 3 . They don’t develop their critical thinking and writing skills and they might fail their final exams . 0 4 . Answers will vary. 5 . Answers will vary. B . 1 . Hook: â€Å"College and high school students often ook for shortcuts to make their work easier . † 2 . Thesis statement: â€Å"However, plagiarism is irresponsible from a social and academic standpoint . † Answers will vary. Example: Plagiarism affects your relationships with your classmates and teachers, and it hinders your academic progress . 3 . d 4 . There are some students who feel that because they are so busy, they have no choice but to plagiarize . 5 . Three: Plagiarism damages classroom relationships, it also violates school policies, and it prevents students from realizing their own potential . Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key Exercise 2 (p. 99) Answers will vary. . The first reason the writer gives is that cable companies charge too much money for the service . 2 . The writer gives detailed price information for the various packages the cable company offers . These facts strengthen the writer’s argument, because they are specific examples of how the cable company’s prices can be very expensive . 3 . The quality of satellite service is inferior, and many buildings do not allow tenants to use satellite dishes . 4 . Cable companies say they are losing money and that getting free cable is against the law . 5 . Answers will vary. Exercise 3 (p. 00) 1 . R 2 . C 3 . C 4 . R 5 . C 6 . RExercise 4 (p. 02) 2 . Once an invention is patented, only the owner can make, sell or distribute the product . Therefore, anyone else who wants to profit from this item must get permission from the owner . or Once an invention is patented, only the owner can make, sell or distribute the product; therefore, anyone else who wants to profit from this item must get permission from the owner . 3 . Novels, plays, newspapers, and other original printed materials are protected by copyright law . However, visual images such as drawings, photographs, and cartoons are still illegally copied off the Internet . or . Novels, plays, ewspapers, and other original printed materials are protected by copyright law; however, visual images such as drawings, photographs, and cartoons are still illegally copied off the Internet . 4 . There continues to be illegal videotaping of movies in public movie theaters . Consequently, the U . S . Congress found it necessary to pass the Family Copyright Act of 2005 . or There continues to be illegal videotaping of movies in public movie theaters; consequently, the U . S . Congress found it necessary to pass the Family Copyright Act of 2005 . Part 4: Editing Your Writing Exercise  (p. 05) Answers will vary. 2 .Whereas some people like to go to a movie theater, others prefer to watch movies at home . 3 . Even though baseball is the most popular sport in America, soccer is the leading sport in Europe . 4 . While shopping online is very convenient, many people prefer to see the merchandise before they buy it . 5 . Although air travel is expensive, the time saved makes it worthwhile . Exercise 2 (p. 06) A . 2 . What they decided to do 3 . It is essential authenticity . is ridiculous . that you check the painting’s 4 . We advise that you buy jewelry only from a reputable dealer . 5 . The board demands teachers . 6 . I don’t agree hat the school hire master with what he said . B . 1 . I believe that viewers have a right to use free unauthorized cable service . 2 . Cable companies complain that they are losing money and that obtaining free cable is unlawful . 3 . We feel that these companies have a monopoly . 4 . In conclusion, I think that people should be allowed to use unauthorized cable service unless we have reasonable options . Exercise 3 (p. 07) 2 . The city residents recommend that the mayor lower the fare for public transportation . 3 . Parents believe that the community should provide after-school programs for teenagers . 4 .It is crucial that the government offer free health care for all citizens . 5 . Most employers insist that their workers arrive on time . Exercise 4 (p. 07) Identity theft occurs when someone steals your name, social security, or credit card number and uses it for his/her own purposes . Although most people feel safe from identity theft (1) , thousands of people each year fall victim to this new form of crime . We recommend that you (2) to protect yourself from this hideous crime . Do not disclose personal information (like your social security number) to strangers . Destroy all unused bank and credit card statements .Keep an eye on your credit cards . Although credit cards make life easier (3) , you need to be cautious when using them . In case you become a victim of identity crime, foll ow these steps . We advise that you (4) should file a police report as soon as you realize that something is wrong . It is crucial that you (5) to notify your credit card companies and bank immediately . We also suggest that you (6) could keep records of all your documents in a safe place . Therefore, if you become a victim, you will have all the necessary information to facilitate the filing process . Part 5: Putting It All Together Exercise  (p. 09) . R 2 . C 3 . R 4 . R 5 . C 6 . R Exercise 2 (p. 09) 1 . A lot of companies copy the ingredients found in famous perfumes . Furthermore/in addition/ moreover, other companies steal patterns for dishware, sheets, and towels . or A lot of companies copy the ingredients found in famous perfumes; furthermore/in addition/moreover, other companies steal patterns for dishware, sheets, and towels . 2 . Many college students know that plagiarism is illegal . However/nevertheless, websites that sell essays continue to grow . or Many college s tudents know that plagiarism is illegal; however/nevertheless, websites that sell essays ontinue to grow . 3 . Writing a research paper takes time and patience . Furthermore/in addition/moreover, it takes determination . or Writing a research paper takes time and patience; furthermore/in addition/ moreover, it takes determination . 4 . Media-related property theft has resulted in legal retaliation . However/nevertheless, the number of individuals illegally obtaining media online has increased . or Media-related property theft has resulted in legal retaliation; however/ Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key  nevertheless, the number of individuals illegally obtaining media online has increased . . Many consumers try to keep up with modern technology . However/ nevertheless, this is almost impossible because what is popular today becomes obsolete tomorrow . or Many consumers try to keep up with modern technology; however/ nevertheless, this is almost impossible because what is po pular today becomes obsolete tomorrow . Exercise 3 (p. 0) Answers will vary. 1 . Although people in the United States greet each other buy shaking hands, people in other countries greet each other by bowing . 2 . While opponents say that television has a lot of violence, many people believe it can be an educational tool . 3 .Whereas many people go on vacation in the summer, I prefer to vacation in the winter when it’s less crowded . 4 . Although smoking has proven to be a dangerous habit, I still see many people smoking . 5 . Even though cell phone users believe they have the right to talk whenever they want, many people believe that cell phones should be banned from restaurants . Exercise 4 (p. ) 1 . It is mandatory that cyclists in the United States wear helmets . 2 . The government believes that people should be punished for stealing intellectual property . 3 . It is essential that a driver check the car’s oil and tires before taking a long trip . 4 .The taxpay ers propose that the mayor build a new highway . 5 . Colleges recommend that students have their own computers . Exercise 5 (p. ) To complete a research project on the Internet, it is important that you (1) must find a good search engine . (2) Although there There are many available (3) , some are better than others . Once you have chosen your search engine, it is essential that you (4) should narrow your search to a specific topic . Type in the keywords for your search . We recommend that you (5) will check your spelling carefully . If you misspell too many words, you will not get the right results . As soon as you have our list of websites, we suggest that you quickly (6) to scan the list . (7) While/whereas some Some people choose websites randomly, others find that the first five 2 Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key to ten are usually the best . Be prepared to look at a lot of websites before you find what you need . Open the sites and skim them to find out if the info rmation will work for your project . (8) Even though/although it It is tempting to copy the material that you have found, it is mandatory that you (9) to use your own words when you write your paper . You should include the website address in your final report . Unit 5Classification Essays Part 1: Stimulating Ideas Exercise 3 (p. 8) 1 . T 2 . T 3 . F 4 . T 5 . F Exercise (p. 8) Answers will vary. 1 . College students looking for a job and people who want to advance in their professions need to learn new skills . 2 . Some computer skills needed are Microsoft Word, Excel, Access, and e-mail systems . 3 . Skills 2006 was a study based on a survey conducted to find out whether new job applicants had the necessary skills . 4 . Companies now want employees to be technically trained for the jobs . 5 . There will not be enough graduates to fill these positions . Part 2: Brainstorming and OutliningExercise 3 (p. 2) Graphic design programs for web pages and animation are discussed . Exe rcise 4 (p. 23) Answers will vary. A . 1 . Flash MX has transitional pages, which are links that guide you from one slide (or portion of the slide) to another . You can also have animated introductions and create diverse effects with the buttons at the bottom of the pages . 2 . Photoshop allows you to repair old photos by adjusting the light and shadow . 3 . Swish provides a greater variety of font designs . 4 . Two-dimensional animations are flat while 3-dimentional animations have depth . 5 . Answers will vary. B . 1 .Hook: â€Å"Graphic design has become an essential tool in desktop publishing . † 2 . Thesis statement: â€Å"Graphic design programs are classified according to their function . † Graphic design programs are categorized according to the functions they perform . 3 . They are being grouped according to function . 4 . The category for body paragraph 1 is programs used to develop a web page . 5 . The category for body paragraph 2 is programs used to desig n flyers, posters, and cards . 6 . The category for body paragraph 3 is animation programs used to produce a 2- or 3-dimensional style . 7 . b 5 . The writer uses statistics . Exercise 3 (p. 29) Answers will vary. 1 . Group 1: landscaper, farmer, park ranger Principle of classification: people who work in nature 2 . Group 2: linguist, interpreter, speech therapist Principle of classification: people who work with language 3 . Group 3: civil engineer, architect, surveyor Principle of classification: people involved in building and construction Exercise 4 (p. 3) Part 3: Developing Your Ideas Exercise  (p. 26) Computer scientists, computer engineers, computer support specialists, and system analysts 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . the greatest the same the fewest almost the same the smallest Exercise 2 (p. 27) Answers will vary.A . 1 . They have to be able to do research and be problem solvers . 2 . They rank the second highest . 3 . The highest paid people with associate degrees will be resp iratory therapists, cardiovascular technologists, and nuclear medicine technologists . 4 . These professionals should be able to communicate written information and medical instructions to their clients . 5 . Computer science and health and human services as well as their related skills are the forces that will drive the economy . 6 . Answers will vary. B . 1 . Answers will vary. Example: Many young people are wondering where the jobs of the future may e . 2 . Thesis statement: â€Å"However, if you are one of the many students who are still confused about which career to pursue, here are the jobs that will have the most growth in the number of people employed over the next decade . † Answers will vary. If you are not sure about your career path, you may want to consider one of these jobs that will be employing the most people within the next ten years . 3 . The information is presented in order of the highest, the second highest, the third highest percentage of growth . 4 . Body paragraph 1: The highest percentage of growth; body paragraph 2: The second-highest ercentage of growth; body paragraph 3: The third-highest growth rate . Part 4: Revising Your Writing Exercise  (p. 34) 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . V, eating S, being V, taking S, learning S, studying Exercise 2 (p. 34) Answers will vary. 2 . I always enjoy swimming in the ocean . 3 . Volunteering in the community can be a wonderful experience . 4 . Many people dislike watching scary movies . 5 . Repairing computers is a useful skill to learn . 6 . If you want to feel better, you should avoid eating fatty foods . Exercise 3 (p. 34) 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . improving memorizing researching discovering taking Exercise 4 (p. 34) Answers will vary. . I am interested in taking a computer graphics course this semester . 3 . I am nervous about speaking in front of a large audience . 4 . I am responsible for taking care of my sister . 5 . I am concerned about passing my driver’s test . Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key 3 6 . I am involved in planting new trees in my community . Exercise 5 (p. 36) 1 . The principal expected the teachers to arrive on time . 2 . The company is planning to hire new employees . 3 . Barbara expects to graduate next year . 4 . All hospitals require doctors to pass their medical exams . 5 . We decided to learn a foreign language . 6 .Employment agencies advise job applicants to dress appropriately for their job interviews . Exercise 6 (p. 36) Answers will vary. 1 . The professor agreed to give the final exam early . 2 . The policeman asked us to park on the other side of the street . 3 . My doctor advised me to eat more fruit and vegetables . 4 . The mayor needs to give a speech next week . 5 . My best friend wants to travel the world before she’s 40 . 6 . Many children learn to write at a very early age . Exercise 7 (p. 37) Answers will vary. 2 . My parents let me go to Europe last summer to study . 3 . The lifeguard had all the swimmers leave the pool . . The judge made the jury stay for the weekend . 5 . The bus driver let all the passengers ride for free . 6 . The airlines made all the travelers turn off their electronic devices . Exercise 8 (p. 37) (1) Finding Find the right career may seem like an overwhelming task for many . If you are looking for job opportunities, you need (2) to take enough time to explore all the options . Begin by (3) assessing assess your skills . Decide what you are good at doing and what you enjoy . Are you interested in designing or creating things with your hands? Perhaps you are more accustomed to (4) sitting sit at a computer . Do you like orking indoors or do you enjoy (5) being be outside in nature? Some people prefer (6) to work on a team, while others dislike working with others . This may be the most important decisions you will ever make, so explore your talents and abilities carefully, and do not let anyone (7) to influence you . 4 Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key Part 5: Putting It All Together Exercise  (p. 39) 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . preparing forming receiving Arriving writing Practicing Exercise 2 (p. 39) 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . to at in for with about Exercise 3 (p. 40) 1 . b 2 . a 3 . c 4 . a 5 . c 6 . c Exercise 4 (p. 40)

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